This procedure has been familiar to everyone since childhood, but if previously it was considered quite harmless, now for some children this test can be dangerous.
To minimize the risk of side effects, special preparation for manti may sometimes be required.
Before deciding on the need for vaccination, you should consult with a specialist, first informing him whether the baby has allergies or any chronic diseases.
Why is the Mantoux test necessary?
The Mantoux test allows you to understand whether the body is able to resist tuberculosis. This can be determined after a few days by changes in the skin at the injection site. There are two main criteria by which the body’s reaction is determined – papule and hyperemia.
A papule is a lump at the injection site, and hyperemia is the degree of redness. If no compaction has occurred or the Mantoux reaction is suspicious, then the procedure is repeated no earlier than two months later.
If the size of the papule increases during a repeated test, then everything is in order, but if it decreases, this means that immunity to tuberculosis is gradually disappearing.
Redness and thickening of the skin at the injection site - a reaction to the Mantoux test
The Mantoux test allows one to distinguish whether immunity to tuberculosis is the result of vaccination or the result of a previous illness.
An alarming sign is considered if the Mantoux test increases annually and this is not associated with vaccination against tuberculosis. Inspectors also sound the alarm if the wound becomes very red and increases in size or when blisters appear around it. This reaction indicates the presence of some kind of chronic infection, or the presence of the causative agent of tuberculosis in the body.
True, even with this result of the test there is no need to panic. The presence of a pathogen in the body is not the disease itself. Carriers of such microorganisms get sick only in ten percent of all cases. If necessary, a specialist may prescribe an anti-tuberculosis drug, isoniazid, for preventive purposes.
Taking this medication significantly reduces the risk of developing the disease.
Types of reactions to manta ray in children
By the way, until now experts have not come to a consensus on whether it is useful or dangerous to do the Mantoux test. The fact is that some patients may experience serious severe reactions to the procedure, even anaphylactic shock.
In addition, the reaction does not always allow one to unambiguously determine the presence or absence of a disease.
The results may be false negative or false positive, and for a final diagnosis you will have to undergo additional tests, including several x-rays, which in itself is a heavy burden on the body.
There are arguments both for and against testing. For example, this is one of the easiest ways to identify a latent form of tuberculosis, but on the other hand, children can also exhibit various negative and sometimes even dangerous reactions to the test itself.
It is important to ensure that the Mantoux test is done at least 1.5 months after the previous vaccination
The Mantoux test is performed once a year, starting at the age of 12 months, regardless of the results of the previous test. Usually the vaccine is given to children up to 14 years of age inclusive, but sometimes this age can be extended to 18 years (for example, if a child was diagnosed with Mantoux at 14 years of age).
Each child has a specific vaccination schedule that is recommended to be followed. However, sometimes it is disrupted, for example, due to departure.
In this case, it is important to ensure that the Mantoux test is done at least 1.5 months after any other vaccination and that the same time period remains before the next one.
If the vaccination involved the introduction of live bacteria, then the duration of this period increases to 2 months, and sometimes the pediatrician may recommend an even longer break.
It is important to remember that failure to comply with the correct timing of the Mantoux test increases the risk of getting sick, since the child’s body may simply not be able to cope with such stress.
In addition, if the deadlines are not met, the result of the sample may be questionable and it will still have to be redone later.
After suffering from an illness, even a minor cold, it is also worth giving a month break before performing the test.
The procedure is performed only on absolutely healthy babies, so the child must be shown to a pediatrician before undergoing it.
Rules and features of preparation
People prone to allergies should start taking antihistamines a few days before the procedure. They should be prescribed by a specialist, he will tell you how long you will have to take them.
Pet owners should take anthelmintic medications before Mantoux just in case. A week before the procedure, you should stop eating foods that could potentially cause allergies. These include: citrus fruits, chocolate, strawberries, raspberries and others.
It is also better not to eat such foods for several days after the injection.
In addition, at this time, it is advisable not to introduce into the diet something that a person has not tried before (since there is a chance that an unknown product can provoke an allergy and mislead specialists who will check the Mantoux reaction).
In spring and summer, it is advisable to wait for the plants to bloom, since this factor can also cause allergies and the Mantoux reaction will be doubtful.
The procedure is performed only on absolutely healthy babies. A slight malaise or a slight runny nose is a reason to postpone the test. This is especially important if the procedure is to be performed on young children.
Before performing Mantoux, it is advisable to visit a therapist. In some cases, it may be necessary to take urine and blood tests, for example, if the child has recently been sick and there is a chance that his immunity has not yet returned to normal.
Preparation for Mantoux is approximately the same for both children and adults. But due to the fact that an adult’s immunity is stronger, he can still neglect some preparatory measures, although this should not be done for the accuracy of the results obtained.
Carrying out the procedure
Since the result of the test can only be seen after a few days, the injection site needs care. And in order for the reaction to be reliable, you must follow some simple rules.
The injection site should not be rubbed, scratched or wet. In addition, before checking the reaction, it is unacceptable to treat the wound with any medications or use a medical plaster.
- On the day of the injection, it is better to wear something with long sleeves made of natural fabrics (linen, cotton, knitwear), since synthetics can irritate the wound and it will itch.
- Before checking the reaction, it is advisable to stop taking medications that can cause allergies, and you should also pay attention to the foods you eat.
- To obtain an accurate test result, it is important to protect the child from stress and excessive physical and mental stress.
The injection site should not be wet, so the baby needs to help wash his hands
In rare cases, performing the test may lead to an increase in body temperature. In such a situation, you should immediately contact a specialist so that he can accurately determine the causes and recommend the optimal treatment.
If you experience other unpleasant symptoms, you shouldn’t delay going to the doctor either. Among the most dangerous side effects is a deterioration in general health due to tuberculin intolerance; the consequences can be very serious, including the development of anaphylactic shock.
In addition, there may be:
- Loss of appetite;
The Mantoux test is quite harmless, however, there are a number of contraindications for which it is not performed. These include:
- Epilepsy and other psychosomatic diseases, especially in the acute stage;
- Skin diseases, especially at the injection site;
- Children's age, up to one year;
- Bronchial asthma;
- A short interval from the last vaccination (mantu can be done only after at least a month).
Is it possible to do Mantu for a child with a runny nose?
Unfortunately, children are often characterized by frequent respiratory diseases of viral origin, which is associated with the immaturity of the body’s immune function and constant contact with children who are in the incubation period of a particular infection.
A similar question is often asked: is Manta administered for a runny nose? In this case, it is necessary to understand the genesis of acute rhinitis.
Most often, rhinitis is one of the symptoms of acute respiratory infections or occurs as an isolated allergic disease. Both of these conditions are accompanied by an inflammatory process in the nasopharynx and the release of biologically active substances such as histamine and serotonin, which are allergy inducers.
The tuberculin test is not a vaccination; when administered, live or weakened bacteria and viruses are not introduced into the child’s body.
It is just a diagnostic test showing the absence or presence of anti-TB antibodies.
Therefore, performing the “Button” will not complicate the course of the disease in any way, but may affect the result itself, that is, a false-positive or hyperergic response may occur.
This is due to allergization of the body and its inadequate reaction. In order to avoid registering with a TB doctor or undergoing a course of chemotherapy, you should refrain from the procedure until complete recovery.
Rules for preparing a baby for vaccination from A to Z
With the advent of vaccinations, child mortality has decreased tenfold. By inoculating the baby with passive bacteria and viruses of measles, diphtheria, polio, tetanus, and tuberculosis, specialists achieved the development of immunity and the number of sick people became fewer.
But vaccination of any disease carries with it side effects, which cause a lot of feedback from mothers. To make the procedure as safe as possible, it is necessary to properly prepare the child for vaccinations. With proper preparation, the risks of side effects are reduced several times.
Our specialists will tell you how to prepare your child for vaccination.
We cook so as not to injure
Negative reviews of vaccinations are mainly associated with the vaccination itself or the mantoux reaction. But most side effects occur due to the fact that the baby, during the period of infection with passive microorganisms, is weakened and any simple viral disease can cause complications.
Experts have developed rules that every parent needs to know. If you follow them strictly, the child will not have any troubles.
So, let's look at how to prepare for vaccination or manta:
- On the day of vaccination or mantu, the child must be in perfect health. Parents will say that a child cannot be absolutely healthy. This is wrong. A few days before vaccination, do not take your child to public places; contact with infected people should be minimal. The fact is that any viral disease has an incubation period of up to 10 days. In combination with vaccination, acute respiratory viral infection or acute respiratory infection will give complications with high temperature, the disease can develop into complications.
- On the day of vaccination, the baby should be full, but we also do not recommend overfeeding. On the psychological side, I’m calm. You need to let the baby sleep. New baits cannot be introduced into food; the table is not changed 5–7 days before vaccination. Some foods can trigger an allergy, which will intensify during vaccination and develop into a complex form. If the baby attends kindergarten, then for the period after vaccination we recommend refraining from going out into society and observing the child. After mantu, there is no need to change your usual lifestyle.
- In a child prone to allergies or asthma, the disease should be in remission. For 2–3 weeks there are no signs: rash, sneezing, redness, itching, none. Before and after vaccination or mantu, 2-3 days before, give the child antihistamines. But you should not use first-generation drugs for preparation: tavegil, diphenhydramine, suprastin. They will dry out the mucous membrane, and this will cause a high temperature after the vaccine.
- At the time of vaccination and mantoux, the child’s intestines must be cleansed. Constipation will increase possible side effects. During the day, lactose is added to the baby's food, it will increase peristalsis and the intestines will be cleansed. You can give an enema to an infant.
- When there are people around the baby who are infected with viral diseases, vaccination is postponed for several days. The child is monitored; any signs (restlessness, poor sleep, crying, refusal to eat) may be a manifestation of infection. If a symptom of a viral infection appears, it is better to take a medical withdrawal for a couple of weeks. A child's weakened body is susceptible to any disease.
- Try to come to the clinic for vaccinations and manti on the day of a healthy child. Minimize your baby's interaction with other children in line. You can take grandma or dad to the procedure, who will go out into the streets with the baby while you stand in line. If this is not possible, take a spray with salt water or saline solution and spray your baby in the nose and mouth every 15-20 minutes. After vaccination, the child suffers viral diseases with complications, so a simple acute respiratory infection can develop into pneumonia, bronchitis or otitis media. These are not complications of vaccination, but the weakened body of the patient does not fight the disease well.
- After vaccination, take your baby for a 30-minute walk near the clinic. If any strange symptoms appear, contact your doctor immediately. In hot weather, frost or heavy rain, we do not recommend vaccination.
- Before vaccination and manta, try to psychologically prepare your child. Tell him why the injection is needed and how it will be given. The baby should be calm and not afraid of vaccination.
- In the child's room, maintain a humidity level of at least 30% and a temperature of 22 degrees. In dry, warm air, side effects occur more often.
- Provide your child with rest after vaccination and do not change food or introduce complementary foods for a week.
Antihistamines are not a panacea for the side effects of vaccinations, so it’s easier to stop giving your child vitamin D in a few days. A lot of it is found in fish and oils. It enhances the allergenic reaction. Calcium, on the contrary, is given in increased quantities. It reduces allergic reactions.
If you follow the recommendations, the preparation will be simple and the baby will not get sick.
What moms should know
Before vaccination and mantoux reaction, ask the doctor to fully examine the baby. The specialist may not know about many symptoms (how the child ate, what his stool was like and his sleep). Tell us about any changes in your baby's body.
Before vaccination, read the information about vaccination. Ask the nurse who is administering the vaccination what the drug is for and how it will be administered. It is good to know how the ampoule was stored and transported. Ask for instructions for use for the drug.
Before vaccination and after mantu, you cannot bathe your baby for 3 days. This is especially true for infants, as they easily overheat. At an elevated temperature, even by 0.1 degrees, it is worth asking for a medical outlet and observing the baby.
If a titmouse or lump appears at the vaccination site, apply a compress of traxevasin or draw a mesh with iodine. If you have other symptoms: high fever, nausea, shortness of breath, contact a specialist immediately.
The famous doctor Kamarovsky will tell you more about the preparation:
- Following a daily routine and a healthy diet will be the best way to prepare your child for vaccination.
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Advice from Dr. Komarovsky
You can read a lot of stories in the media about how the Mantoux test led to severe side effects. Experts have different opinions on this matter.
Some argue that an increase in temperature in a child after a tuberculin test is a normal reaction of the body. Others note that this is a sign of sensitivity to the drug.
Most doctors advocate Mantoux, since it is an accessible and effective diagnostic method, and hyperthermia is a rare reaction to tuberculin.
To prevent an increase in temperature after the Mantoux test in a baby, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of specialists. Usually, before administering tuberculin, doctors inform parents about all possible reactions to the drug and give advice on preventing their development.
The famous doctor Komarovsky recommends:
- examine the child before performing a tuberculin test. Before the procedure, you need to measure your body temperature. The sample is allowed to be taken if the thermometer shows no more than 36.8 degrees;
- if the baby is unwell, the procedure is rescheduled;
- If an infectious or viral pathology is suspected, the test should be performed at another time. The test is allowed to be done a week after complete recovery;
- if the child is teething, it is better to postpone the test;
- in case of exacerbation of a chronic disease, Mantoux should be postponed until the pathology enters the remission stage;
- The injection site should not be wetted, touched or scratched for three days. Therefore, you need to closely monitor the baby all this time. Infants can bandage their hand with a bandage, but in such a way that the material does not squeeze the limb;
- if the baby has an individual intolerance to tuberculin, then Mantoux should be abandoned.
Many parents know that children who are prone to allergies should be given an antihistamine (for example, Fenistil, Zyrtec, Claritin, Zodak, Suprastin, Cetrin) the day before and for several days after vaccination. But Dr. Komarovsky notes that the Mantoux test is not a vaccination and it is not worth giving medicine to prevent an intolerance reaction before assessing the result.
After all, the essence of the test is to analyze the immune response to tuberculin. And an antihistamine may interfere with obtaining a reliable result. Such medications are used only when the child has a severe allergic reaction to tuberculin, which is accompanied by swelling, shortness of breath, and fever.
How to prepare a child for vaccination - basic rules of vaccination
Vaccination is a necessary procedure, but often it becomes a real stress for the baby and parents. Proper preparation will help avoid negative reactions and complications.
How to prepare a child for vaccination, what contraindications should be taken into account - we will talk about all this with you today.
Preparing for vaccination - general rules
Dr. Komarovsky often talks about vaccinations in his videos. A well-known pediatrician believes that there is no need to carry out any special preparation before vaccination. All you need is an examination by a pediatrician and a conversation with your parents.
But if you want to play it safe, follow a few simple rules:
- do a general blood and urine test to rule out hidden infections;
- Try not to visit crowded places with your child for several days before and after vaccination;
- if there are relatives with ARVI in the house, postpone vaccination; after vaccination, the baby’s body is weakened and can easily catch any infection;
- protect your baby from hypothermia and overheating;
- exclude possible allergenic products from the menu;
- If possible, ask one of your relatives to take a turn at the clinic, and spend the time waiting outside;
- if you still have to wait in line at the hospital, take a homemade or pharmacy saline solution with you, irrigate the nasal mucosa for yourself and your baby once every quarter of an hour;
- On the day of vaccination, it is strictly forbidden to bathe the child.
Mantoux test for a runny nose in a child: Komarovsky
It has already been said above what will happen if you do Mantoux when you are sick - this can lead to a false reaction, which is often interpreted as an infection and will necessarily be sent to a tuberculosis clinic with all the ensuing consequences.
A fairly well-known pediatrician, Komarovsky, also believes that the tuberculin test simply shows the strength of the immune system, and does not produce specific antibodies in the child’s body.
At the same time, snot is a manifestation of a disease in which certain inflammatory processes occur that can lead to an incorrect assessment of the test.
Preparing for Mantoux: in children aged 1 year, how to prepare for a child’s vaccination
Preparation for Mantoux must be correct. This will ensure a reliable result and minimize the likelihood of error. Incorrect data may result in the child being referred for additional examinations.
Checking for contraindications
- Before carrying out tuberculin diagnostics, you need not only to prepare for Mantoux in accordance with the recommendations of a specialist, but also to exclude the presence of contraindications.
- These include:
- Acute infectious and viral diseases. During this period, the child’s immunity is weakened and may react more sharply to the introduction of tuberculin. Mantoux should not be used not only during illness, but also for 3-4 weeks after complete recovery.
- Skin diseases, pustular rashes. Especially if they are localized on the inner surface of the forearm, where tuberculin is injected.
- Exacerbation of atopic dermatitis and other allergic reactions.
- Pathologies of the central nervous system, such as epilepsy.
- History of tuberculin allergy. In this case, preference should be given to other methods of examination for tuberculosis (chest x-ray).
You cannot do tuberculin diagnostics at the same time or several days after the vaccine is administered. Especially if it contains active viruses (CPC, etc.).
After vaccination, Mantoux is allowed to be given no earlier than 4-6 weeks later. This will help the body develop immunity and fully recover.
It is not advisable to test children during the quarantine period if the child attends a group in which an infectious disease has been registered.
Proper nutrition will help prepare your child for the Mantoux vaccination. It should be complete and fortified. You can’t immediately limit your child in everything, you just need to exclude potentially allergenic foods.
To do this, you need to remove citrus fruits, nuts, honey, chocolate, spices, seafood, etc. from your diet for several days.
It is advisable to exclude products that contain large amounts of preservatives, flavors, dyes and other substances that can provoke an allergic reaction.
What do you think are the most important factors when choosing a medical facility?
Grounds for medical withdrawal
The tuberculosis antigen, which is injected under the skin during the Mantoux test, is non-living mycobacteria subjected to thermal and chemical treatment. As a result, it is impossible to become infected after the procedure; it is absolutely safe for children and adults and does not affect the immune system.
For the same reason, many doctors answer in the affirmative to the question whether Mantoux can be done for coughs or snot, which are a residual phenomenon. The nuance is that at least 3-4 weeks must have passed since the illness that caused such symptoms. During this period, the body is completely restored.
However, it is cough and snot that often accompany acute respiratory infections, colds and other respiratory diseases. During the acute period of the disease, testing for tuberculosis is strictly prohibited. In addition, cough syndrome can be a sign of the onset of an inflammatory process, so Mantoux with a cough and runny nose is dangerous for the development of unpleasant complications.
Other contraindications to performing Mantoux include:
- quarantine and the period for a month after it;
- acute skin disease;
- allergies during exacerbation;
- bronchial asthma;
- ARVI and other infectious pathologies;
- chronic pathological processes at the acute stage.
It is also contraindicated to administer the Mantoux test simultaneously with vaccines against other diseases.
The minimum period that must pass since the last vaccination with non-live vaccines should be a month. If the drug is live, for example, as a vaccine for MMR (measles, rubella, mumps), then this time interval increases to 6 weeks (we recommend reading: how MMR vaccination is done and possible adverse reactions).
preparation for manta, vaccinations - how to prepare for manta
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