Inflammation of the nasopharynx in a child, treatment

Routes of infection

Infectious agents are opportunistic microorganisms. This means that they live in small quantities on the mucous membranes of a healthy person.

However, they do not cause any changes or disrupt functions. The harmful effect is pathogenicity, manifested in changes in the bacterial balance.

In a healthy person, microorganisms do not manifest themselves in any way. As soon as the body's resistance decreases, the fungi actively grow and reproduce.

Some types of pathogens are transmitted from person to person through household means.

Routes of infection:

  • Food;
  • hygiene products;
  • contact with the patient's saliva;
  • medical instruments;
  • from mother to fetus during childbirth.

Causes of fungus in the throat

The fungus is capable of exhibiting pathogenic properties in any acute infection or chronic disease. People with metabolic disorders are at risk.

Diseases that create favorable conditions for the growth of fungus in the throat:

  • diabetes;
  • HIV;
  • pathology of the endocrine system;
  • tumors.

What leads to activation of pharyngomycosis?

  1. Chronic throat diseases.
  2. Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency.
  3. Dysbacteriosis is a decrease in the number of beneficial bacteria in the body.
  4. Treatment with antibiotics. Long-term therapy leads to disruption of the intestinal microflora, which causes activation of the fungus. Antibiotics fight viruses and bacteria. Fungi are resistant to their properties.
  5. Long-term treatment with local antiseptics: sprays, aerosols, lozenges.
  6. Poor nutrition. The body receives few vitamins and minerals, which leads to decreased immunity.
  7. Alcohol. Alcohol-containing drinks cause mucosal burns and inflammation. Local immunity weakens.
  8. Use of dentures.
  9. Caries.

In newborn children, fungal tonsillitis is transmitted from the mother with signs of thrush. The infectious agent reaches the fetus through the placenta or during childbirth. A baby can also become infected with a fungus if sanitary standards in the maternity hospital are violated.

Causes of inflammation of the nasopharynx

The main causes of nasopharyngitis are considered to be severe hypothermia and viral infections. Young and middle-aged children with weakened immune systems or those suffering from diathesis are at risk. It is very easy for infectious pathogens such as cocci to enter such an organism.

These sticks take root well on the cells of the mucous membranes, causing swelling and significant dilation of blood vessels. It is worth noting that the rush of blood can also spread to the mucous membrane of the ear canals. Thus, infectious pathogens contribute to the inflammatory process in those places where lymphoid tissue accumulates.

Treatment of fungus in the mouth

Fungal disease is treated comprehensively, using several remedies

Goals of therapy:

  • eliminate the cause of the infection;
  • restore the microflora of the oral mucosa;
  • strengthen the immune system.

How is fungal sore throat treated? In mild cases, you can get by with an ointment that is applied to the affected areas.

  1. Amphotericin. The product has pronounced antifungal properties. Amphotericin blocks most strains (pathogens).
  2. Clotrimazole is an antifungal (fungicidal) medicine. The active substance penetrates the body of the fungus and inhibits its growth. The drug may cause side effects - itching and red spots on the larynx.

Antiseptic solutions are used to treat the mucous membrane. The drug is changed once a week. The back wall of the larynx is treated with solutions and the tonsils are washed.

Common antiseptics:

  • Miramistin;
  • Chlorhexidine;
  • Lugol's solution.

In a hospital setting, laboratory irrigation of the larynx is performed - endolaryngeal administration of drugs and physiotherapeutic procedures.

How to treat a mild form of laryngeal fungus in an adult?

For a lasting effect, use repeated rinsing of the mouth with alkaline solutions:

  • 25% baking soda solution;
  • Iodinol;
  • 20% solution of Borax in glycerin.

Moderate fungal tonsillitis is treated with antifungal ointments:

  • levorin;
  • nystatin;
  • dekaminovaya.

The course of therapy is 10 days. Treatment is carried out 3-4 times a day.

To treat advanced forms of infection, take fungal tablets. The drugs are prescribed in the acute stages of the disease.

Popular drugs in tablet form:

  • Nystatin;
  • Levorin;
  • Decamine;
  • Fluconazole.

The course of treatment is 1-2 weeks. After eliminating visible lesions in the throat, tablets are taken for prevention, reducing the dose. For children under 12 years of age, tablets are contraindicated.

An advanced fungus is difficult to remove, therefore, along with antifungal drugs, general tonics are taken:

  • vitamin complexes;
  • probiotics;
  • immunomodulatory drugs – Immunal, Polyoxidonium, Ginseng extract.

If pharyngomycosis is complicated by other types of infection, antibiotics are prescribed.

Complex treatment

When Candida fungus in the throat is confirmed, treatment is aimed at fighting the fungus and increasing immune defense. If complications occur, medications are prescribed that reduce the severity of symptoms.

The complex uses:

  1. immunomodulators (Echinacea, Derinat, Immudon);
  2. antihistamines (Loratadine, Zodak, Suprastin);
  3. vitamins C, B.

Local therapy with antifungal agents is carried out with solutions of Lugol, sodium bicarbonate, Chlorhexidine or Hexidine.

These medications have a good antimycotic effect, but can cause irritation of the oral mucosa. It is better to give preference to ointment and spray. Among such drugs you can use Clotrimazole, Nystatin, Levorin and Pimafucin.

At the initial stage of development, the disease can be managed with the help of local drugs, but as the disease progresses, systemic antimycotic medications are indicated.

To get a quick and powerful therapeutic effect, you need to choose medications taking into account the type of fungus, age and health status of the patient.

Using a microscopic method, it is possible to confirm a fungal infection. To determine the type of fungus and its resistance to drugs, it is necessary to conduct a cultural study.

Do not forget about the disturbed intestinal microflora, which also requires therapeutic effects. For this, probiotics are prescribed, for example, Linex, BioGaya, Bifiform or Latium.

Physiotherapeutic procedures are used to enhance the effect. Courses of laser therapy, ultraviolet irradiation and electrophoresis can speed up recovery.

Often several courses of antimycotics are required to completely eliminate pathogens. Recovery can be confirmed using laboratory diagnostics. Microscopy is repeated, the results of which make it possible to determine further tactics.


Therapy for nasopharyngitis is always complex, using a wide range of medications. Treatment is aimed at improving well-being, reducing the severity of symptoms and destroying the pathogen in the infectious form of the disease. In addition, special attention is paid to strengthening the body’s defenses, for which they use vitamin therapy and immunomodulating drugs.


The main and most effective method of treating inflammation of the nasopharynx. The choice of pharmaceutical products depends on age, causes of illness and general health. Depending on the type of pathogen, antibiotics or antiviral drugs are used. In case of an allergic form of nasopharyngitis, it is also necessary to take antihistamines.


Used only for inflammation caused by bacterial infection. Oral systemic antibiotics are most effective. The choice of a specific agent is carried out taking into account the diagnostic results. Main drugs:

  • Amoxicillin;
  • Amoxil;
  • Ciprofloxacin;
  • Amoxiclav.

In addition, combined broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs are used, for example, Faringosept or Grammidin. The course of antibiotic therapy is always limited. The drugs are used for 7-10 days, after which it is necessary to change the drug or use other treatment methods. The choice of a specific antibiotic should be made by the doctor, taking into account the type of bacteria and the age of the patient.

Antibiotics destroy not only pathogenic bacteria, but also the body’s own microflora, which leads to dysbacteriosis. To avoid this problem, probiotics should be used as maintenance therapy, for example, Linex, Bifikol, Bifidumbacterin, Lactulose.

Antimicrobial drops and sprays

To speed up recovery, local antimicrobial drugs containing an antibiotic are also prescribed. They act directly on the source of infection and effectively and quickly fight the pathogen.

Popular sprays and drops:

  • Isofra;
  • Neomycin;
  • Polydex;
  • Baneocin.

Local preparations often contain auxiliary components, which improve breathing and relieve swelling and inflammation. Due to the low concentration of antibiotic in the composition, they are also suitable for children.

Features of treatment in children

The disease has entered the acute stage if the child develops a white coating on the tonsils in the form of grains or plaque. Fungus on the tonsils is common in children. For successful treatment, follow a diet.

Products excluded from the diet:

  • sweets;
  • baked goods;
  • salted, pickled vegetables.

You should limit your consumption of fermented milk products. An important step on the path to recovery is careful hygiene. Dishes and nipples are sterilized after use.

For thrush, the child’s tonsils and throat are wiped with the following solutions:

  • with soda;
  • infusion of oak bark;
  • Miramistin.

Among the medications, drops in the mouth based on Clotrimazole are prescribed. For example, Pimafucin. Treatment is complex and includes local and restorative medications.

For thrush, children are prescribed:

  • antihistamine drops;
  • immune stimulants;
  • beneficial bacteria;
  • antifungal drops.

Fungal diseases indicate a weakening of protective reactions. Taking antifungal drugs is combined with strengthening the immune system. Only complex therapy will help avoid reactivation of the throat infection.

Problems with the nasopharynx in children

Overheating has the opposite effect: blood vessels dilate, blood flow increases, the temperature of the skin and mucous membranes rises, sweating increases, and heat transfer increases. These phenomena, called thermoregulation, can be developed to a greater or lesser extent.

In children whose skin is regularly exposed to cool air, cooling and even short-term hypothermia will lead to a moderate and short-term narrowing of the blood vessels of the skin and nasal mucosa. Children raised in greenhouse conditions will experience prolonged vasospasm in similar conditions, which, in turn, will lead to a sharp decrease in the temperature of the skin and nasal mucosa. And since the nasal cavity serves to warm and humidify the inhaled air, an unhardened child will inhale colder air under the same conditions than his hardened neighbor. And inhaling cold air leads to a deterioration of the protective barriers of the mucous membranes of the lower respiratory tract, which most often are the entry point for infection.

Thus, contact with an infectious agent is more likely to lead to illness, firstly, in conditions of hypothermia of the body, and secondly, in an unhardened child who has untrained thermoregulation. So the cold factor in some cases of acute respiratory infections still plays a role, but not as the main cause (the main reason is the virus).

Nasopharyngeal conditions are another common cause of recurrent respiratory problems. Parents are usually concerned about their child's runny nose. And the fact that a child sniffles through his nose, snores in his sleep, and that his mouth is often or constantly open is paid much less attention to. If a child breathes through the mouth, then the nasopharynx does not perform its protective function, and all viruses inhaled through the mouth and entering the lungs are instantly spread throughout the body. Such children get sick much more often than children who do not have problems with nasal breathing. What are the main causes of difficulty in nasal breathing?

First of all, allergic swelling of the nose. Normally, the mucous membrane of the nasal passages is gray-pink in color. If the child is sick, it is red. And if the mucous membrane of the nasal passages has a bluish tint (lilac) and is swollen (protrudes into rounded protrusions into the nasal passages), then the ENT doctor has no doubt about the diagnosis - allergic rhinitis.

Allergic rhinitis is not immediately treatable. It must be treated for a long time by an allergist and an ENT doctor, who often prescribe physical therapy (microwave paranasal sinuses, endonasal electrophoresis with magnesium sulfate or calcium chloride, etc.), however, frequent visits to the clinic are fraught with infection, so this issue is resolved individually.

Enlarged adenoids are another cause of impaired nasal breathing. It should be remembered that the adenoids consist of lymphoid tissue, which takes part in the immune defense against infections and tends to increase (hypertrophy) with repeated respiratory infections. Therefore, the true size of the adenoids can be assessed only in the absence of catarrhal symptoms for a month.

Narrow nasal passages and/or a deviated nasal septum can also impair nasal breathing, especially when combined with allergic rhinitis.

In addition to more frequent morbidity and the risk of developing chronic foci of infection in the nasopharynx, persistent disruption of nasal breathing also causes deterioration in brain nutrition. The fact is that during normal nasal breathing, during inhalation and exhalation, variable pressure is created in the chest, which promotes the pumping of cerebrospinal fluid of the cerebrospinal fluid that washes the brain. When breathing through the mouth, there will be less resistance to air movement, and therefore, the pressure drop in the chest will decrease. As a result, the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid will be much weaker. It has been proven that children with persistent nasal breathing disorders lag behind their peers in development, their memory is worse and they learn worse.

Recommendation If your child breathes poorly through his nose, sniffles, his mouth is often open and he snores in his sleep, pay close attention to this!

Chronic tonsillitis is also one of the common causes of nasopharyngeal problems. Children with chronic tonsillitis often suffer from respiratory diseases and often have bad breath. From time to time there may be complaints of joint pain, heart pain, headaches, abdominal pain (constant discharge from the nasopharynx into the stomach), poor appetite, and a prolonged increase in temperature to 37.1-37.5 ° C. Sometimes children with chronic tonsillitis lag behind their peers in physical development. Previously, the common diagnosis was chronic tonsillogenic intoxication, tonsillocardial syndrome - the appearance of heart murmurs and characteristic changes on the ECG, which disappear after conservative or surgical sanitation of the tonsils.

If a child has a constant enlargement of the tonsillar lymph nodes (at the angle of the lower jaw), if he has loose tonsils fused to the arches, in the lacunae of which purulent plugs form 2 times a year or more often, remember that this child has a chronic source of infection and intoxication and it must be treated.

Sanitation of chronic foci of infection, if any, is a very important point that has a positive effect on your child’s future, so take him to the ENT doctor more often and more actively. Do not hesitate to tell the doctor: “Doctor, we are still sniffling!” or “We have bad breath again. Help us deal with this!

However, it should be remembered that all of the above measures only reduce the likelihood of a child’s respiratory diseases, but do not completely eliminate them.

The most effective way to prevent a particular disease is specific immunization (vaccination), for example against influenza or against Haemophilus influenzae or pneumococcal infection.

Traditional methods of treatment

Fungus in the throat can be treated not only with medications, but also with folk remedies. They are completely safe and contribute to a speedy recovery of the patient.

Commonly used herbs include celandine, calendula, golden mustache, chamomile, string and St. John's wort. An infusion of oak bark, sea buckthorn oil and a solution of sea salt have a good effect. You can also gargle with Kalanchoe or cranberry juice.

The effectiveness of this treatment method depends on the complexity of the disease and the regularity of its use. Most often, the patient is completely cured without any complications.

Diet for throat fungus

Following a special diet during treatment is necessary for a speedy recovery. It is recommended to eat lean meat, buckwheat, vegetables, fish, and eggs. Fruits can be eaten in small quantities.

Among vegetables, preference should be given to bell peppers, cucumbers, onions, cabbage, tomatoes, garlic, and herbs. If you have throat candidiasis, it is undesirable to eat sauerkraut, wheat, barley, dairy products, pickles, rice, and rye.

Also prohibited are dishes with vinegar and yeast, sweet foods and alcohol consumption. If you follow these recommendations, you can avoid relapse of the disease, and fungus in the throat will never appear again.


Infectious nasopharyngitis develops rapidly, the incubation period is only 1-3 days. Then the following symptoms appear:

  • feeling of burning and dryness in the nose;
  • frequent sneezing;
  • sore throat, dry cough;
  • worsening nasal breathing;
  • fever, chills;
  • weakness of the body and sweating.

As a rule, after 4-6 days from the onset of the disease, general symptoms become mild. Nasal discharge takes on a greenish-yellow hue and becomes thicker.

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