Pharyngitis treatment in children Komarovsky

How to properly treat acute nasopharyngitis in children

Nasopharyngitis (in English “common cold” - cold) is a respiratory disease characterized by fever, runny nose, sore throat, cough, and deterioration in the child’s general well-being.

The virus primarily affects the upper respiratory tract. Children who attend kindergartens and schools are more susceptible to the disease, since the virus spreads easily in such places. In this article we will talk about how to treat acute nasopharyngitis and prevent the development of its chronic form.

Main characteristics

Nasopharyngitis is transmitted by airborne droplets . It develops easily if the baby’s immunity is weakened after a previous illness or against the background of a new disease. The period of morbidity most often falls at the beginning of spring, when the child’s body has not yet gained strength after winter. Nasopharyngitis most often has a viral nature, less often – bacterial and allergic.

Depending on the severity of the disease, there are two main forms:

  1. Acute nasopharyngitis , characterized by an acute course, obvious symptoms and viral origin.
  2. Chronic nasopharyngitis is a disease of children with a poor immune system and pathologies of the respiratory system. If the acute form of the disease does not improve within 3-4 weeks after the start of treatment, the disease can be considered chronic.

Treatment of rhinopharyngitis in children - how to do it

Treatment of nasopharyngitis is fundamentally different from the treatment used for colds. Pediatricians note that it is important to initially use antibacterial and anti-inflammatory sprays, as well as inhalations. If signs of complications such as otitis media appear, consultation with an otolaryngologist is recommended.

When acute nasopharyngitis develops, the following procedures are used:

  • gargle using a variety of antiseptic solutions (Miramistin, Furacilin, Rotokan, etc.) or decoctions of herbs that have antiseptic properties (chamomile, calendula, sage, mint, coltsfoot, etc.);
  • take hot foot baths and warm steam inhalations;
  • ensure timely replenishment of lost fluid reserves by giving the child drinks in the form of compotes, tea with lemon, or rosehip decoction;
  • follow a diet, limiting the consumption of spicy, smoked, too hot or too cold foods.

If treatment needs to be carried out for an infant who cannot yet gargle on his own, then inhalations with both antiseptic and anti-inflammatory solutions and decoctions can be an alternative.

For treatment, you can use anti-inflammatory drugs such as Protargol or Erespal. Their combination with antiseptics will help not only eliminate the inflammatory process and disinfect the surface of the pharynx, but also soften the crusts that form from drying mucus. Removing crusts that form plays an important role in the treatment of pathology, as it makes it easier for the child to breathe, freeing up the airways.

To soften crusts and provide anti-inflammatory therapy, throat lozenges can be used. Their resorption ensures the active formation of saliva, which helps clean the surface of the pharynx. Also, many lozenges have a weak anesthetic effect due to the addition of novocaine to them, which reduces the intensity of pain.

Treatment of allergic rhinopharyngitis is selected according to other principles . In this case, first of all, it is necessary to stop the allergic reaction. To do this, they try to limit contact with the allergen, and also select antihistamine therapy.

Antihistamines are either drops (Alergodil, Vibrocil (reviews), Sanallergil, etc.) or tablets (Tavegil, Zodak, Claritin, etc.). The antihistamine is selected individually depending on the child’s age and effectiveness.

For allergic rhinopharyngitis, it is also recommended to use sorbents. Thanks to their effects, it will be possible to quickly eliminate the allergen from the body, cleansing it. Carbolgon, Enterosgel, etc. can be used.

In some cases, specific immunoglobulin therapy is prescribed, but it can only be carried out in a hospital under the supervision of a specialist. Specific immunoglobulin therapy is carried out only after allergy tests have been performed.

How to gargle for nasopharyngitis - Dr. Komarovsky

Causes and factors of acute form

As a rule, children suffer from an acute form of the disease. This is an acute viral infection that affects the respiratory tract. The temperature rises sharply and a runny nose appears.

Acute nasopharyngitis in children begins quickly .
The incubation period lasts only 2-3 after infection. On the third day, the symptoms are especially pronounced, and by the fifth there is a sharp decline in symptoms. The disease can last up to 14 days. In case of possible complications, treatment is adjusted and lasts longer than usual.

Children can get nasopharyngitis several times a year. There are a number of reasons for this. The most important of them are viruses that a baby can “pick up” while being surrounded by his peers.

The main source of infection is a sick child or a virus carrier. The virus can be transferred to the mucous membrane through dirty hands after contact with a sick person . This is especially dangerous for children with reduced immunity or those who have just recovered. An organism that has not fully recovered is easily susceptible to external influences.

Another contributing factor is acute rhinitis . This is a kind of precursor to acute nasopharyngitis. The child has a stuffy nose and breathes through the mouth. Due to this, the air passes through unheated and unpurified, which sharply increases the risk of getting sick.


The symptoms of the disease are wide and vary depending on the age of the young patient and the degree of infection. Infants are particularly susceptible to the disease.

Among the main symptoms are:

  • temperature increase;
  • profuse runny nose;
  • anxiety;
  • refusal of breast or formula;
  • The child has difficulty falling asleep and does not sleep well.

Older children often complain of headaches and sore throat. The main symptoms include:

  • runny nose,
  • sneezing,
  • cough with difficulty expelling sputum.

General health worsens, drowsiness, apathy, lethargy appear, the child refuses to eat. Symptoms may persist for up to 7 days. Residual cough - up to 10.


At the first signs of illness, the local pediatrician is called home, who will carry out the first examination and give a referral to an otolaryngologist. Often, the pediatrician himself prescribes treatment based on the symptoms described by the parents and the examination performed.

Most often, two types of examinations :

  • The initial examination includes assessment of the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. With nasopharyngitis, the follicles of the tonsils change, increasing in size. Doctors call this phenomenon “paving stone syndrome.”
  • Laboratory diagnostics are prescribed in case of protracted nature of the disease. It includes a general urine test and a clinical blood test.

A urine test is required for children with fever.
This is done to rule out a urinary tract infection. A blood test is advisable if there are standard symptoms of the disease. It is necessary in order to identify the true nature of the causative virus and understand the need to use an antibiotic.

Additional diagnostics are only necessary if pneumonia is suspected, when the temperature does not subside for more than three days and some signs of pneumonia are present. In these cases, a chest x-ray is prescribed. Very rarely, a swab is taken from the back of the throat.


Symptoms and treatment are inextricably linked, therefore, to determine treatment methods, it is important to describe to the pediatrician or ENT specialist which of the symptoms are most pronounced and bother the child. The question of prescribing antiviral therapy is decided by the doctor observing the child, but in most cases it is not required.

Treatment of the acute form is carried out at home . This rule does not apply to babies under one year old, since they have a high risk of complications. Therapy includes the following.

Treatment methodsDescription of therapy
Antiviral therapy , including treatment with pheronsTreatment is permissible only in the case of a diagnostically proven viral nature of the disease.
Medications are prescribed on the 1st or 2nd day of the onset of the disease. Most often, children are prescribed Ergoferon, Anaferon, Orvirem, and Viferon rectal suppositories. Doses of medications are selected individually. In addition, interferons are often instilled into the nose throughout the illness. These are Derinat and Grippferon drops.
Symptomatic therapy
  • For severe runny nose, it is recommended to use saline solution to rinse the nasal cavity. The procedure is performed lying down. Special aspirators are used to suck out mucus from the nose of babies in their first year of life. After cleansing the cavity, it is possible to use vasoconstrictor drops for severe nasal congestion or at night.
  • At high temperatures, pediatricians advise wiping the child with cool water and giving paracetamol or ibuprofen in the form of suppositories or syrup.
  • It is appropriate to give antipyretics at a temperature of 38.5 to children over 3 months old, and when it rises to 38-38.5 degrees in babies under 3 months. Each case is individual, so the use of antipyretics is also possible at a temperature of 38 degrees, if the child does not tolerate the feverish state well.
  • Cough relief is carried out with warm and plentiful drinks. Various expectorants are ineffective. For a sore throat, gargles are recommended; for children over 6 years of age, lozenges and tablet forms of drugs are allowed. For example, Faringosept. Children under one year of age are prescribed Miramistin 1 injection 3-4 times a day.

Not indicated and also not effective for nasopharyngitis :

  • immunomodulatory drugs,
  • antitussives, expectorants, mucolytics,
  • steam and aerosol inhalations,
  • antihistamines.

Bed rest is a mandatory condition of treatment. Following some important rules will help your child recover faster:

  1. drink plenty of fluids , light, unobtrusive food, vitamins are allowed;
  2. It is better to place the pillow higher : it will be easier for the baby to cough and breathe easier;
  3. daily wet cleaning , ventilation, air humidification, maintaining the room temperature no higher than 22 degrees.

Traditional methods are also very popular . When treating children, alcohol-based tinctures should be avoided. Among the simplest and most accessible treatment methods are the following:

  1. Warm milk with butter and honey added to it . The taste is a little unpleasant, but the drink is famous for its effectiveness. Not recommended for children with allergies to ingredients.
  2. Hot foot baths with chamomile and pine needles . After the procedure, the child is carefully put on socks and placed under a warm blanket. Baths should not be given to children with elevated temperatures.
  3. Drink made from pureed viburnum and honey . Grind the viburnum berries, add honey and pour boiling water. Drink like regular tea.

What to treat: antibiotics

Antibacterial therapy for nasopharyngitis is not effective . Antibiotics not only do not kill the virus, but also provoke further complications in the development of the disease. A change in the color of nasal discharge from clear to green is not a sign of a bacterial infection.

Complications requiring antibacterial therapy have characteristic signs and are characterized by:

  • stuffy noses for up to 14 days and facial soreness (may indicate bacterial sinusitis),
  • clicking sounds accompanied by pain and ear congestion (may indicate acute otitis media).

Against the background of nasopharyngitis, pneumonia may also develop or a chronic disease may worsen. Therefore, antibiotics can be prescribed for:

  • chronic lung pathology,
  • immunodeficiency.


The main clinical manifestations that characterize this disease are identified. These include:

  • Dryness of the nasopharynx, burning sensation in it.
  • Difficulty in nasal breathing.
  • Accumulation of mucus in the nasal passages. Sometimes streaks of blood may be present.
  • Swelling of the nasopharynx.
  • Enlarged posterior cervical lymph nodes.

When the inflammatory process spreads to the area of ​​the auditory tubes, pain in the ears and hearing impairment appear. With inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, there is pain in the frontal part of the head, which intensifies when it turns and bends.

In addition to general symptoms, there are other clinical manifestations that occur with a certain form of rhinopharyngitis.


The latent period does not last long, only 1–3 days. In adults and older children, the acute form of rhinopharyngitis manifests itself first:

  • Nasal congestion.
  • Sneezing.
  • A slight increase in body temperature (not higher than 38° C).
  • Copious discharge of mucus from the nose.

Often at night there is a dry cough, which occurs due to irritation of the back wall of the throat with mucus.

With rhinopharyngitis in infants, lethargy, decreased appetite, and sleep disturbance come to the fore. When examining a child, special attention is paid to the presence of discharge from the nasal passages, manifestations of conjunctivitis and increased body temperature.

In children under the age of 1 year, the disease is somewhat more severe, which is associated with the anatomical structure of the ENT organs, namely the age-related narrowness of the nasal passages and the small vertical size of the nasal cavity. As a result, nasal breathing is significantly impaired and shortness of breath develops. The child becomes restless, refuses to suck, and sometimes regurgitates.

On average, in the absence of complications, nasopharyngitis can last up to 10 days. On the 5th day from the onset of the disease, nasal breathing improves, the amount of nasal discharge decreases, and it becomes mucopurulent in nature.

After this, a period of recovery begins. In children, residual effects of nasopharyngitis such as cough and increased fatigue often persist for a long time.


The disease acquires this form in cases where the necessary treatment is absent for a long time. A patient with chronic nasopharyngitis is bothered by a constant, dry cough, the sense of smell is often impaired, and during a long conversation a sore throat appears.

Upon examination, pronounced swelling of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, accumulation of thick mucus, and enlargement of regional lymph nodes are revealed.

There are several types of chronic nasopharyngitis, which have characteristic clinical manifestations:

  • Granular or catarrhal. Manifests itself in the form of pronounced swelling of the mucous membrane, looseness of the palatine tonsils. The voice becomes hoarse, the throat is painful.
  • Hypertrophic. The nasopharyngeal mucosa is swollen and loose, the palatine tonsils are enlarged. The patient is bothered by the feeling of a foreign object in the throat, and purulent discharge appears from the nose.
  • Atrophic. The mucous membrane of the nasopharynx is pale, and in the nasal cavity it is covered with dry crusts. The patient is bothered by a painful, nocturnal cough, rawness and sore throat.

In chronic nasopharyngitis, there is always a stage of exacerbation, when these symptoms are most pronounced, and remission, in which the clinical picture of the disease practically disappears.


The clinical manifestations of this form are similar to acute and chronic nasopharyngitis. The inflammatory reaction spreads over the entire surface of the nasopharyngeal mucosa.

A feature of allergic rhinopharyngitis is that undesirable symptoms always appear against the background of contact with an allergen.

Taking into account individual sensitivity and allergen concentration, clinical manifestations may weaken or increase in one day. If the influence of harmful factors is eliminated, the clinical picture of the disease completely disappears.


The appearance of chronic nasopharyngitis is caused by improper functioning of the mucous glands, including complete or partial atrophy of the nasal membrane. In this case, there is no mucus in the nose, which traps germs and viruses; dehydration of the nasal mucosa provokes dry mouth, difficulty swallowing and breathing discomfort.

The chronic form is unusual for children , since such changes in the nasopharynx require a long period of time. The alarm should be sounded when the symptoms of the disease do not go away within 21 days. Then the child requires a comprehensive examination.

What Komarovsky says

Dr. Komarovsky strongly recommends starting treatment by taking a smear from the back wall of the nasopharynx .
Identifying a specific virus will allow you to prescribe the correct treatment. In addition, the doctor claims that the whole essence of the problem is in closed windows and incredibly dry air in the room where the child lives.

Since most childhood pharyngitis is viral in origin, Komarovsky completely denies the use of antibiotics . You should not immediately run to the pharmacy for a list of prescribed medications if your local pediatrician has only examined your child. First all the tests, and only then the treatment.

Komarovsky insists that treatment should include:

  • drinking plenty of water,
  • frequent ventilation in the room,
  • maximum humidity in the room.

A plus is the irrigation of the nasopharynx and pharynx with a saline solution, which is easy to prepare: add a teaspoon of salt per liter of boiled water. Instead of such a solution, you can use a pharmaceutical saline solution. If the child’s age allows, it is permissible to irrigate the cavity with Miramistin.

As a preventative measure, the pediatrician recommends strengthening the immune system as much as possible and taking care of the quality of the child’s saliva: the higher the humidity and the more the baby drinks, the better the protective function of saliva.


There are several ways to protect your child from nasopharyngitis:

  • wash your hands thoroughly with soap after a walk;
  • During the peak of the incidence, it is recommended to wear protective masks ;
  • daily wet cleaning using disinfectants;
  • hardening;
  • in kindergartens and schools, it is important to notice a sick child in time and isolate him until complete recovery;
  • flu vaccination.


Nasopharyngitis (rhinopharyngitis) in children - forms of the disease and methods of treatment

What is nasopharyngitis

Nasopharyngitis (rhinovirus infection, rhinopharyngitis) is a disease that is accompanied by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses, middle ear and nasopharynx. Thus, the disease combines rhinitis and pharyngitis.

Nasopharyngitis in children is a common disease and occurs in almost 80% of cases of seasonal ARVI.

Forms of the disease

The following main forms of nasopharyngitis occur:

An acute disease can occur in an allergic form, or have a viral or bacterial etiology.

Chronic nasopharyngitis is divided into hypertrophic, which is accompanied by swelling and enlargement of the layers of the nasopharynx, and atrophic, characterized by thinning of the mucous membrane.

There is also a meningococcal form of the disease, in which the tonsils, posterior wall of the nasopharynx and pharynx, larynx, bronchi, and trachea are involved in the inflammatory process.

Possible reasons

The peak incidence of nasopharyngitis occurs at the end of winter and the beginning of spring.
The disease passes from an acute to a chronic form for the following reasons:

  • hypothermia of the body;
  • constant inflammatory processes occurring in the nasopharynx;
  • failure to comply with hygiene rules;
  • complications caused by diseases of the kidneys, liver, heart.

Symptoms and signs in children

Young children cannot always accurately describe what is bothering them. Therefore, the first signal that parents should be wary of is a child’s nasal congestion.

Common symptoms of nasopharyngitis are:

  • heat;
  • sore throat and muscles;
  • coughing and sneezing that gets worse at night;
  • swelling of the eardrum;
  • mucous discharge from the nose;
  • change in voice (nasality);
  • lethargy, sleep disturbance, mood swings, loss of appetite.

The first sign of the development of nasopharyngitis in children from 3 months to 3 years is an unexpected increase in temperature (sometimes up to 40˚C), which is accompanied by coughing and sneezing. In older children, the disease may not be accompanied by such a symptom.

Meningococcal nasopharyngitis can be accompanied by any characteristic symptoms of the disease and often occurs together with meningitis or meningococcal sepsis.

In children under one year of age, the acute form of nasopharyngitis is severe. The reason for this is the narrow nasal passages, as well as the small size of the nasal cavity, which leads to severe congestion of the respiratory organ.

Diagnosis of the disease

Treatment options

Drug therapy

If the child’s body temperature rises to above 38˚C, it is necessary to use antipyretics (paracetamol, Nurofen, Panadol). They are used as needed.

For older children, you can use aerosols (for example, Aqua Maris) - 1-2 sprays into each nostril are enough. Afterwards, it is recommended to drip two drops of vasoconstrictors (naphthyzin, galazolin) into the nose. This procedure is repeated three times a day for 4 days.

For the bacterial type of disease, antibiotics (sumamed, amikacin) are prescribed. This often occurs during an exacerbation of the chronic form of nasopharyngitis or during complications with the occurrence of bronchitis and tracheitis.

Warm drink

A sick child should drink more warm liquids

Folk remedies

Traditional therapy methods are recommended not to be used as a separate method of treatment, but to be combined with medications to enhance their effectiveness.

Inhalations can be used from the first days of illness to treat children of any age with acute and chronic forms of the disease . At the same time, the child should not have an elevated body temperature. The duration of the course is 3–4 days.

Treatment of the nasal mucosa
  • Beetroot juice diluted with water is suitable for instillation into a child’s nose. After the procedure, you need to insert cotton swabs into the nostrils for a few minutes.
  • As a nasal rinse, you can use 1 teaspoon of salt or soda diluted in a glass of water. This remedy can be used for both acute and chronic nasopharyngitis. The child leans over the sink, opens his mouth and sticks out his tongue. The solution is then injected into one of the nostrils. At first it is recommended to do this with a small pressure, increasing it slightly when the patient gets used to the procedure. The same manipulations are performed with the second nostril. For infants, routine saline instillation is recommended. The treatment procedure is performed 3 times a day for 3–4 days.

Infants will not be able to gargle, so this method of treatment is suitable for a child over 3 years old.

Before starting treatment with both medications and folk remedies, it is better to additionally consult with a pediatrician.

Video: Advice from Dr. Komarovsky on rinsing a child’s nose

Prevention of nasopharyngitis

General recommendations to help reduce the risk of nasopharyngitis in a child:

Nasopharyngitis can greatly complicate the lives of children. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to each symptom and be sure to report it to a specialist. This will allow you to avoid the disease becoming chronic, as well as successfully cope with possible complications.

My name is Olga. Specialty #8212; ecologist. I am currently on maternity leave and writing articles.

How to recognize and treat acute nasopharyngitis in a child. Pharyngitis in children. Dr. Komarovsky

There are 2 forms of nasopharyngitis:

The primary cause of the acute form of the disease is a viral infection. In some cases, acute nasopharyngitis is bacterial in nature. It occurs when bacteria join viruses. The disease combines infectious and acute rhinitis, rhinorrhea. In the acute stage, the disease occurs in an allergic form.

Chronic nasopharyngitis is divided into:

  1. Hypertrophic. At this stage, the nasopharynx swells, the throat feels sore, a light liquid substance flows out of the nasal passages, and lacrimation occurs.
  2. Atrophic. There is thinning of the mucous membranes, dry nasopharynx, and bad breath.


The disease occurs if:

  • there is a constant inflammatory process in the nasopharynx;
  • the child is hypothermic;
  • weakened immunity;
  • Complications of heart, kidney, and liver diseases develop.


The disease is accompanied by:

  • temperature rise to 38-390 C;
  • cough and runny nose;
  • itching and burning in the nose;
  • pain in the throat;
  • pain in the muscles;
  • nausea and vomiting syndrome.

The baby is capricious: refuses to eat, cries, sleeps poorly. Another characteristic sign is difficulty breathing.


Acute and chronic nasopharyngitis can provoke the development of complications: otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, scarlet fever, measles. Therapeutic methods help eliminate the symptoms of the disease and improve the child’s condition.

Sick children need:

  • bed rest;
  • proper nutrition (the amount of protein products is increased, and fats and carbohydrates are reduced);
  • warm, liquid and pureed food (such food does not irritate a damaged throat);
  • drinking plenty of fluids (drinks flush pathogens from the body);
  • natural vitamins found in vegetables, herbs, and fruits.

Drug treatment

In the initial stage of the disease, in the absence of fever, children are given mustard plasters, their feet are soaked in baths of warm water, compresses and other thermal procedures are made.

To facilitate nasal breathing, vasoconstrictor drops are used. When purulent mucus is released from the sinuses, local antibiotics are used. For this, the doctor prescribes drops. Children are given antiviral agents, antiseptic lozenges or lozenges.

Rinse the nose with herbal decoctions, sea or mineral water, and Furacilin solution. In case of bacterial infection, antibiotics are used. The pharynx is irrigated with anti-inflammatory aerosols. Physiotherapeutic procedures: UHF and UV irradiation help to cope with the disease.

The use of antibiotic drugs is justified when the disease is caused by bacteria. Antibiotics cannot fight viral infections. They do not have a therapeutic effect, but they give side reactions that negatively affect the body, and also weaken the child’s immune system.

Antibiotics cannot be used for prophylactic purposes. When antibiotics are used irrationally, pathogenic microorganisms develop resistance to them.

There is no point in using broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat nasopharyngitis. They are discharged after examining the smear for bacteriological culture.

It is important to follow your pediatrician's recommendations regarding the use of antibiotics. The relatives’ mistake is stopping antibiotics on their own after the baby’s condition begins to improve. Unjustified interruption of antibiotic therapy is unacceptable. Nasopharyngitis from an acute form transforms into a chronic form that is difficult to treat.

Treatment according to Komarovsky

Dr. Komarovsky is confident that the effectiveness of treatment depends on how correctly the pathogen is identified. To determine it, a swab taken from the throat and a blood test are performed. Based on the results of the tests, appropriate treatment is prescribed.

Here's how you can treat nasopharyngitis:

  • vitamin C;
  • extracts of echinacea and goldenseal;
  • homeopathic medicines prescribed by a doctor;
  • hydrotherapy (moisten a cloth with hot water and apply it to the throat, then make an application with a cloth that has been soaked in cold water);
  • antibiotics for bacterial diseases.

A few more tips from Dr. Komarovsky:

  • use antiseptic herbal solutions to gargle after each meal;
  • irrigate the throat with aerosols containing antibiotics;
  • take antibiotic tablets if prescribed by a doctor;
  • dissolve antiseptic lozenges.

In addition, Evgeny Olegovich Komarovsky recommends creating special conditions:

  • monitor air humidity (this is especially important if the child has developed chronic nasopharyngitis);
  • ventilate the room;
  • provide walks in the fresh air;
  • ensure that children do not inhale dust, polluted air, or tobacco smoke.

Chronic form

Prolonged illness and recurring symptoms are the first signs of chronic pharyngitis. The reasons for this deplorable situation are often:

  • secondary infection of the nasopharynx (herpes virus, stomatitis and others);
  • mononucleosis;
  • error in diagnosing the type of pharyngitis;
  • environmental factors irritating the pharynx.

The child continues to stay in the apartment of parents who smoke, the air in the rooms where the children are is dry, and during the treatment process drinks and food that are too cold or hot are offered.

  • allergies, constant inhalation of an allergen;
  • adenoids;
  • chronic rhinitis.

Mucus drains down the back of the throat and irritates the tissues.

Important ! If symptoms remain unchanged 10-14 days after the start of treatment, contact a specialist - an otolaryngologist. Perhaps the disease is progressing to a chronic stage or the treatment prescribed by the pediatrician is incorrect.

Doctor Komarovsky about pharyngitis in children

About the disease

Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the mucous and lymphoid tissue of the pharynx. If the inflammatory process moves and invades the nasopharynx, this is already rhinopharyngitis (its other name is nasopharyngitis). Inflammation of the pharynx occurs for a variety of reasons:

  • viral infection caused by influenza viruses, adenoviruses;
  • bacterial infection with streptococci , staphylococci, pneumococci, fungi of the Candida family;
  • an allergy that develops specifically in the larynx - due to inhalation of poisonous, toxic substances, dust.

Evgeny Komarovsky claims that there is nothing unusual about pharyngitis - the disease occurs in childhood more often than parents are used to thinking. There are children who receive this diagnosis 3-4 times a year, but this can no longer be considered the norm. Quite often, inflammation of the pharynx and nasopharynx can be caused by too dry air inhaled by a child, whose parents are very fond of closing all the windows and maintaining a hot microclimate in the apartment.

Viral pharyngitis is usually acute. It develops against the background of ARVI or influenza, which means that it is characterized by all the symptoms of these diseases - runny nose, running snot, headaches, fever up to 38.0 degrees. With such pharyngitis, the child will complain of pain or a sore throat, and it will be painful for him to swallow. An infant who cannot complain about anything will begin to refuse food, cry and worry.

Bacterial pharyngitis is severe, with a temperature rise above 38.5 degrees, with severe pain in the throat. Upon visual examination, purulent formations may be noticeable in the larynx and tonsils, which are often confused with sore throat.

The choice of treatment tactics depends on what kind of illness the child has developed - viral, bacterial or allergic. It should be noted that even a very experienced doctor will not be able to answer this important question solely on the basis of a visual examination of the child and an assessment of all accompanying symptoms. The doctor, of course, will say that the baby has pharyngitis, but only two simple tests will help determine its origin: a clinical blood test and a throat smear for flora and sensitivity to antibiotics.

Without these studies, says Evgeniy Komarovsky, there can be no talk of any normal, responsible and conscious treatment of pharyngitis. After all, all three types of illness are treated with completely different methods and medications.

Drugs against viruses that are so effective are usually administered intravenously and used in inpatient settings in infectious diseases hospitals. They have a large number of side effects and are quite difficult to tolerate. Neither homeopathic remedies, nor other tablets and syrups with a claimed antiviral effect, which are freely sold in Russian pharmacies, advertised on television and radio, have an effect on viruses and immunity.

In addition, you will need to remove from the room all objects that can accumulate dust - carpets, soft toys, books. The air is humidified to a level of 50-70%, ventilated, and the child’s room is often wet cleaned.

A child is contagious until he is given antibiotics. Usually, a day after this, the child can easily attend school or kindergarten if he does not have a fever. Bed rest is optional.

If a child's laboratory tests confirm streptococcal pharyngitis, then all family members should take similar throat swabs. If necessary, all household members should undergo antibiotic treatment to avoid re-infection of the baby.

Advice from Dr. Komarovsky

In the next video, Dr. Komarovsky will talk about sore throats in children.

medical columnist, mother of 4 children

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Competent treatment of pharyngitis in children: Komarovsky gives advice to parents

Children suffering from pharyngitis at an early age are a common and natural phenomenon. How often and how hard it is for a child is a completely different matter. This is exactly what Dr. Komarovsky says about pharyngitis.

This disease can occur for various reasons, including viruses, streptococcal bacteria or allergies. Most often, the cause of pharyngitis lies, according to the doctor, in dry air and closed windows.

In this article we will talk about the doctor’s approaches to the treatment of pharyngitis in children.

Each type has its own symptoms. The main thing is not to confuse incipient pharyngitis with a progressive sore throat. Here the doctor gives specific symptoms: with pharyngitis, a runny nose and a characteristic throat cough are added to a sore throat .

Sore throat occurs with the same sore throat, inflammation of the mucous membranes, but without accompanying manifestations .

Depending on the type of pharyngitis, Komarovsky notes a characteristic clinical picture (see table).

  • copious discharge from the nose;
  • headache;
  • temperature up to 38 degrees;
  • sore throat;
  • inflammation of the lymph nodes;
  • infants begin to be capricious and refuse to eat;
  • The main symptom is a dry cough.
  • dry cough;
  • sore throat when swallowing;
  • a slight increase in temperature, but not higher than 37.5 degrees;
  • There are no symptoms of ARVI, there is a slight runny nose.
  • severe pain in the throat and not only when swallowing;
  • temperature above 38.5 degrees;
  • purulent formations on the tonsils (this sign should not be considered a symptom of tonsillitis).

Let's not forget about chronic pharyngitis, which can recur against the background of ARVI, or can worsen on its own. In children suffering from chronic pharyngitis :

  • often sore throat,
  • there is a feeling of dryness in the mouth,
  • Be sure to have a tormenting dry cough, but without a high fever.

How to treat

Treatment of pharyngitis in children (Komarovsky adheres to this position) should take place after consultation with a doctor, but without unnecessary intervention.

Everything related to throat diseases, including pharyngitis, is treated by Dr. Komarovsky according to a special scheme based on three basic principles :

The natural development of immunity in a child is built on these three pillars. The doctor strongly recommends not to interfere with the body’s development and fight the disease naturally . There is absolutely no need to help him with all sorts of stimulant drugs.

If we are talking about viral pharyngitis, it is necessary to give the body the opportunity to defeat the “enemy” itself . At this time, there is no need to interfere: remove antipyretic, antiviral and other medications away. Otherwise, instead of 5 days, pharyngitis will torment the baby twice as long.

Bacterial pharyngitis often requires the use of antibiotics . But before following the doctor’s recommendations, it is necessary to clarify the nature of the disease.

This is due to the fact that for the most part antibiotics are not needed at all, rather the opposite.

According to the doctor, antibiotics are a serious thing and “if you stuff children with them in every Czech case, then there will simply be nothing to treat serious diseases with .”

Komarovsky assures that no doctor can prescribe the correct treatment without a blood test and taking a swab from the throat . This is the only way to determine sensitivity to antibiotics and clarify the nature of pharyngitis.

Principles of effective treatment according to Komarovsky:

  • Viral pharyngitis is never treated with antibiotics . There will be no result, and the risk of bacterial complications increases significantly. It is treated by drinking plenty of fluids to sweat and remove toxins, and cool air in the room. The optimal temperature is 16-18 degrees, even for children in the first months of life. In addition, the doctor recommends irrigating the nasal passages and throat with saline solution (take 1 teaspoon of salt per liter of water). It is permissible to use local drugs such as Miramistin.
  • Allergic pharyngitis is treated only with antihistamines , selected depending on the allergen. Antibacterial therapy in this case is also inappropriate. It is permissible to rinse the nose with saline solutions. All soft toys , carpets, rugs from the child’s environment
  • Bacterial pharyngitis is treated with penicillin antibiotics . The doctor makes a reservation that the issue of using antibacterial medication is decided strictly on an individual basis . Often there is no need for such therapy.

How to treat a baby

When treating pharyngitis in babies in the first year of life, Dr. Komarovsky calls for special caution. Not all medications are suitable, and the child cannot tell where and what hurts him. In this regard, the first priority should be to ensure plenty of fluids .

A decoction of raisins is considered an ideal drink ; a little later it is permissible to give a compote of dried fruits .

At high temperatures, you should avoid all types of rubbing : you will not only not reduce the temperature, but also increase the risk of poisoning with alcohol or acid.

You should also avoid “physical” cooling methods : heating pads with ice, cold wet sheets, fans. All this can contribute to vasospasm.

To moisturize the baby's nasal mucosa, it is allowed to use regular saline solution . You can drip 3-4 drops into each nostril every half hour.

If a child finds it difficult to breathe, an ambulance should be called immediately . Before her arrival, provide access to fresh cool air, warm drinks and warm clothing.

Acute therapy

Treatment of acute pharyngitis is aimed at preventing complications in the form of the addition of a bacterial component. The doctor calls the following main types of therapy

  1. Gargling with herbal decoctions . For example, sage, chamomile and St. John's wort. But this method is only suitable for children who already know how to gargle on their own.
  2. Saline solution for gargling.
  3. Various topical preparations : Faringosept, Doctor Mom lozenges, various sprays with an antiseptic effect. The most popular of them is “Miramistin”.
  4. Mandatory observance of the proper level of humidity in the room , fresh air, drinking from the first signs of pharyngitis. The stronger the symptoms, the more you should drink.

Dr. Komarovsky about a child’s sore throat:

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How to treat nasopharyngitis in children

Nasopharyngitis is a very common disease. Most often it affects children. The disease is characterized by inflammation of the mucous surface of the nasopharynx. It is caused by viruses that infect the body through airborne droplets.

Nasopharyngitis develops against a background of weakened immunity, when the child has not yet fully recovered from a previous illness, as well as against the background of an existing infection. It can be acute or chronic.

Symptoms of the disease

There are three stages of development of nasopharyngitis:

  1. At the initial stage, the child feels slight discomfort in the nasopharynx.
  2. Serous nasal discharge gradually appears.
  3. The nature of the discharge changes. They become serous-purulent.

Children suffer from this disease much more severely than adults. The general condition of the child’s body worsens. Lethargy appears, appetite disappears and sleep is disturbed. There are complaints of headache and discomfort in the throat when swallowing.

All manifestations of nasopharyngitis can be divided into general and local. Common symptoms include fever and general weakness. They appear first.

Local symptoms develop when the disease has already reached the next stages of development. Epithelial cells are damaged, causing severe swelling. This is accompanied by a sore throat when swallowing. Warm tea will help improve your well-being in this case.

The nasopharynx swells, making it seem as if the nose is stuffy and it becomes difficult to breathe. A runny nose may appear. In some cases, the lymph nodes become enlarged.

The child may have a cough, which usually bothers you in the morning. This symptom does not occur due to damage to the lungs or bronchi. The cough develops as a reactive process and may be minor.

Video of nasopharyngitis in children:

Clinical manifestations of nasopharyngitis in children develop gradually. A mild course of the disease may not even affect the child’s well-being.

Infants react much worse to the disease. Due to the fact that the nose is stuffy, they refuse to breastfeed, lose weight, and diarrhea may appear. Therefore, such children need special attention.

Forms of the disease

There are acute and chronic forms of nasopharyngitis.

Chronic pharyngitis occurs if the child has weak immunity or a high risk of developing pathologies of the respiratory system.

But this article will help you understand how to use Lazolvan for children for inhalation.

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Which cough syrups for children over 2 years of age are the most effective and safe are described in great detail in this article.

Treatment of the disease

Therapy for nasopharyngitis is aimed at eliminating symptoms and improving the child’s well-being. It is advisable to start treatment as early as possible. This will avoid complications.

An important part of treatment is the drinking regime. The child should drink a lot. This will speed up the process of removing the virus from the body. You can drink weak tea, fruit drinks, compotes.

The body needs more vitamins. It is better if the child receives them in the form of fruits and vegetables.

On video how to treat nasopharyngitis in children:

Treatment of acute illness

For acute nasopharyngitis, the following procedures are prescribed:

  • At the beginning of the disease, mustard plasters are applied, foot baths are done, and other thermal manipulations are performed.
  • Use vasoconstrictor drops.
  • If there is purulent nasal discharge, local antibiotics are prescribed, which need to be dripped into the nose.

In the photo - local antibiotics

Treatment of the disease

Therapy for nasopharyngitis is aimed at eliminating symptoms and improving the child’s well-being. It is advisable to start treatment as early as possible. This will avoid complications.

For nasopharyngitis, the child is advised to go to bed. It is necessary to pay special attention to nutrition. The amount of protein in the diet should be increased, and fats and simple carbohydrates reduced. The food should have a warm, puree-like consistency. This will avoid irritation of the affected throat. Also read which is better: Lizobaki or Laripront for the treatment of pharyngitis.

An important part of treatment is the drinking regime. The child should drink a lot. This will speed up the process of removing the virus from the body. You can drink weak tea, fruit drinks, compotes.

The body needs more vitamins. It is better if the child receives them in the form of fruits and vegetables.

On video how to treat nasopharyngitis in children:

Treatment of acute illness

For acute nasopharyngitis, the following procedures are prescribed:

  • At the beginning of the disease, mustard plasters are applied, foot baths are done, and other thermal manipulations are performed.
  • Use vasoconstrictor drops.
  • If there is purulent nasal discharge, local antibiotics are prescribed, which need to be dripped into the nose.

    In the photo - local antibiotics

  • If the disease is viral in nature, antiviral drugs are needed.
  • Positive effects are obtained from rinsing the nose with herbal decoctions, mineral or sea water, and Furacilin.
  • Physiotherapeutic procedures such as UHF and UV radiation of the nose may be needed.

    In the photo - UHF child

Therapy for chronic disease

After confirming the diagnosis by a specialist, the following measures are prescribed for chronic nasopharyngitis:

  1. A gentle diet. It is necessary to avoid hot, spicy and salty foods.
  2. Irrigation of the throat with antiseptic drugs, such as Chlorophyllipt, also starting from the age of one year for the child Tantum Verde.
  3. For local use, antiseptic sprays, lozenges, and lozenges are prescribed.
  4. In order to restore the ability to breathe normally, procedures such as adenotomy and submucosal resection of the nasal septum may be prescribed. Doctors also prescribe Thuja drops to ease breathing.
  5. If necessary, antibacterial drugs and physiotherapeutic treatment can be used.

This article will help you understand which children's syrup for wet cough is the most effective, and what its name is.

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