Pansinusitis: types, causes, treatment methods

Every person has seven sinuses (sinuses). The maxillary, frontal and ethmoidal ones are two each and one more is wedge-shaped.

On the inside they are lined with mucous membrane. The sinuses play an important role, because thanks to them the facial skeleton is formed, the timbre of the voice is determined, and the air entering the nose is heated.

If pathogenic microorganisms penetrate the sinus cavity, an inflammatory process develops.

When two or more sinuses are inflamed, we are talking about the disease polysinusitis. If inflammation is severe, the doctor will diagnose pansinusitis.

Polysinusitis can be acute or chronic. According to the type of pathological process, the disease is distinguished into purulent and catarrhal forms. There is also a polyposis type, this is also polysinusitis, which gives bright, unpleasant symptoms.

Main symptoms and how the disease manifests itself

First of all, this is a general intoxication syndrome, associated with the fact that a large amount of toxins enters the blood and an inflammatory process occurs.

A person has a headache, a fever, aching joints, loss of appetite and severe weakness.

Acute pansinusitis: how to detect the disease in time and prevent its development

What local symptoms will help to suspect the disease:

  1. Discharge from the nose. It can be mucous, purulent and even mixed with blood.
  2. Stuffiness, lack of smell, swelling of the nasal mucosa.
  3. Pain. When several sinuses are affected, there is no clear localization of pain. The patient is worried about discomfort in the upper jaw, and pain in the forehead and bridge of the nose; some patients say that the whole head hurts and compresses.

Important! Symptoms may vary from person to person. So, in some patients the area of ​​the eyelids, forehead and cheeks swells. Others experience shingles headaches, some experience decreased vision and impaired coordination of movements.

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What is pansinusitis?

Considering the nature of the location of the sinuses in relation to each other, the rapid spread of the disease is easily explained. The fact is that the sinuses are very close, the inflammatory process from one quickly moves to the other.

sinusitis
This affects:

  • bone,
  • periosteum,
  • mucous membrane,
  • submucosal layer.

In fact, pansinusitis is a combination of a number of diseases, since inflammation that affects the mucous membrane of the maxillary (maxillary) sinus is sinusitis, the sphenoid sinus is sphenoiditis, the frontal sinus is frontal sinus, and the ethmoidal labyrinth is ethmoiditis. The inflammatory process leads to the accumulation of pus in the sinuses, is accompanied by a number of symptoms and has a negative impact on the condition of the body as a whole.

The process may have some differences in the nature of its course, which affects the patient’s condition and requires a differentiated approach to treatment. From this point of view, pansinusitis is divided into:

  • polyposis,
  • catarrhal,
  • exudative,
  • hyperplastic,
  • purulent.

The last type is considered the most difficult and dangerous. If left untreated, purulent pansinusitis can even lead to death.

The volume of pus in the sinus increases at a high rate, leading to a large number of complications. It is not easy to cure this form of the disease; surgery, drainage of purulent accumulations, and long-term drug treatment are required.

Polypous pansinusitis
Polypous pansinusitis also requires surgical intervention. The polyps that arise as a result of the inflammatory process grow in size and quantity, spread to adjacent spaces, and can cover large areas with the polyp population. Polyps are removed through surgery.

Catarrhal pansinusitis is considered the mildest form. In this case, there is swelling of the mucous membrane and mucus discharge, but there is no pus. However, this form of the disease must be treated very carefully, since the conditions of blockage of passages and inflammation in the sinuses create an optimal environment for the rapid proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. As a result, this leads to the formation of pus and the transition of the disease to a purulent form.

From the point of view of the presence/absence of recurrent fluctuations and the nature of the course, pansinusitis can be divided into the following forms:

  • primary,
  • spicy,
  • chronic.

Primary pansinusitis occurs as a complication of sinusitis, in the absence of treatment for the latter. Acute – characterized by fever, headache, pallor, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite and sense of smell. Chronic – has the same symptoms, but less pronounced, periodically disappearing and reappearing.

Treatment

Knowing what kind of disease pansinusitis is and how it progresses, you can choose the right treatment. Therapy is aimed at eliminating the underlying cause of the disease, as well as alleviating and eliminating existing symptoms.

Treatment of pansinusitis involves reducing swelling of the mucous membrane. If nasal drops are prescribed for this, then you must carefully follow all the required rules for the procedure. At the same time, antibacterial drugs are prescribed

In this case, it is very important to complete the full course of therapy, without skipping medication. In addition, you need to use mucus thinners, which helps to quickly clear the sinuses

In the acute form of the disease, treatment is carried out mainly by a conservative method, however, if the pathological process progresses to the chronic stage, then surgical intervention is usually performed.

Classification of forms of pathology

Considering the nature of inflammation and the changes that occur in the nasal cavities, experts identify several types of pathology. There is an exudative and productive (proliferative) form of the disease, each of which has its own subtypes.

Types of exudative forms of pansinusitis

For exudative pansinusitis, the formation of different types of secretions inside the sinus is typical. Based on this feature, the following species division was carried out.

  1. Serous variety. Nasal discharge is colorless and watery, containing admixtures of epithelial cells, protein, lymphocytes and leukocytes. The prognosis in such a case is favorable: the escudate resolves fairly quickly, and the damaged tissues are restored.
  2. Catarrhal pansinusitis. It is typically characterized by an accumulation of mucous discharge, with a significant concentration of epithelial cells and eosinophils (in an allergic reaction). The acute form of such an inflammatory process ends with complete recovery, and with a chronic illness, atrophy of the mucous membrane is noted.
  3. Purulent pansinusitis. The secretions in this case include defective albumins, leukocytes, lecithins, fats, glycolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Regeneration in this case is quite slow and may be delayed due to the addition of a secondary infection.

Productive form

Signs of the pansinusitis-productive form are less pronounced. This form is characterized by mucosal hyperplasia. The proliferative form is divided into the following subtypes.

  1. Parietal-hyperplastic appearance. It is characterized by thickening of the mucous membranes in the area of ​​the walls of the sinuses. As a result: the volume of the sinus is reduced, which leads to worsening inflammation.
  2. Polypous pansinusitis. With this type of disease, tissue grows above the sinus mucosa. Polyps may have a thin stalk or a wide base, thanks to which they are attached to the walls of the sinuses.

Why is pansinusitis dangerous?

Typically, pansinusitis occurs due to sinusitis (the maxillary sinus is most often affected), which was not treated or inadequate therapy was used. For example, if sinusitis arose due to dental disease, and the patient did not go to the dentist to cure it. Then inflammation of the maxillary sinus becomes chronic, latent. Gradually, the pathological process begins to cover all paranasal sinuses, causing acute purulent pansinusitis. The disease is very difficult. But since the pathological process covers all sinuses, it is extremely difficult to diagnose it in time. Very often it occurs against the background of:

  • flu;
  • acute respiratory infections;
  • ARVI.

Therefore, the symptoms of pansinusitis are difficult to separate from the signs of these diseases. After all, it, like colds of the upper respiratory tract, is characterized by:

  • headache;
  • difficulty breathing;
  • runny nose.

But in acute pansinusitis, the cause of the headache is that serous fluid and pus accumulate in the sinuses. Therefore, it is often localized in the most affected areas due to the pressure of the contents on the outer walls of the sinuses. For example, with a more severe lesion:

  • maxillary sinus pain is localized in the area of ​​the canine fossa;
  • frontal - in the area of ​​the orbital wall.

Causes of the disease


Pansinusitis often develops under the influence of infection.
If the disease occurs in an acute form, the inflammatory process is usually provoked by one type of microorganism. When the disease becomes chronic, other bacteria join in. The development of pansinusitis occurs under the influence of streptococci, staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and anaerobes.

Microorganisms can enter the nose along with the air from foci of a chronic infectious process in the body. Typically, acute pansinusitis occurs against the background of influenza, measles and other severe infectious diseases, but in some cases it manifests itself as a complication of rhinitis.

Predisposing factors to the development of the disease:

  1. Infectious processes in the body.
  2. Allergic reactions.
  3. Polyposis.
  4. Injury to the nasal septum.
  5. Deterioration of the immune system.
  6. Caries, pulpitis, periodontal disease, other oral diseases.
  7. Diabetes.
  8. Living or frequently staying in a place with polluted air, inhaling large amounts of dust, infections.
  9. Swimming in polluted waters.
  10. Bad habits that weaken the body and also affect the respiratory system.
  11. Taking strong medications, chemotherapy.

What is pansinusitis, what are its causes, symptoms and treatment?

Pansinusitis is known first-hand to all those who have encountered this unpleasant disease at least once in their lives. Its essence lies in the fact that all the paranasal sinuses simultaneously become inflamed in the patient, causing enormous discomfort and negatively affecting the general condition. Despite the huge number of unpleasant sensations, a person must find the strength to begin treatment. After all, if it was done on time, very soon any, even the most severe symptoms will subside.

What is polysinusitis?

Polypous sinusitis is a complicated form of sinusitis. With polysinusitis, several sinuses are affected. In this case, a complex of diseases occurring simultaneously is observed: frontal sinusitis, ethmoiditis, sinusitis.

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Polysinusitis is caused by various types of infections that enter the paranasal sinuses. The reasons are varied: influenza, acute respiratory disease, a common runny nose. Subsequently, the infection can cause damage to the mucous membrane of the paranasal sinuses.

Also, the causes of polysinusitis can be injuries to the nasal septum, enlarged nasal passages.

The symptoms of this disease are similar to ordinary acute or chronic inflammation of the sinuses. The only difference is that polysinusitis is more pronounced.

What is polysinusitis?

Common symptoms associated with this disease are:

  • severe nasal congestion, resulting in a person experiencing a lack of air;
  • severe constant pain in the face (the patient can only cope with painkillers);
  • increase in body temperature in the evening;
  • runny nose accompanied by purulent discharge;
  • swelling of the facial area;
  • change in complexion to a paler color.

The main symptom is nasal congestion. This symptom can appear at the very beginning of the disease.

Symptoms of the disease

It was already mentioned above that pansinusitis rarely occurs on its own. It usually results from advanced sinusitis. That is why acute pansinusitis has symptoms similar to the initial disease:

  • nasal discharge has a thick consistency of green or yellow color, and as the disease progresses, purulent inclusions begin to be observed
  • Nasal congestion is so severe that the patient cannot breatheSinus pain
  • severe headache, which increases when the head is tilted, especially forward, and no medications help
  • the temperature rises to 39-40 degrees, which is very difficult to bring down
  • the face begins to swell, and any movement or touch to the skin causes pain, especially in the sinus area
  • the patient ceases to perceive odors, and there is also a disturbance in the perception of taste buds
  • a person may experience a feeling of constant unpleasant odor, which indicates the presence of severe stagnation of pus in the nasal sinuses
  • hearing is impaired, there is a feeling of constant fullness in one or both ears
  • voice becomes hoarse
  • general health can be described as weak and apathetic
  • photophobia occurs
  • appetite decreases
  • moving on your feet or in transport causes deterioration in health

At the first signs of pansinusitis, you should seek qualified help. The sooner adequate medications are taken, the lower the risk of complications.

Treatment and prevention of acute pansinusitis

Treatment of acute pansinusitis with medications and folk remedies

To treat pansinusitis with medications, complex therapy is used, and in some cases, surgical intervention is used.

When treating pansinusitis caused by a viral infection , a number of antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs are used that will actively fight pathogenic viruses and increase the body's protective functions. Vasoconstrictor sprays and nasal drops are also used.

To treat bacterial pansinusitis, broad-spectrum antibiotics and various nasal rinsing solutions are used. In this case, antibiotics actively fight pathogenic bacteria, and solutions help flush out accumulated pus in the paranasal sinuses.

With the development of allergic pansinusitis, antihistamines and vasoconstrictor nasal sprays and drops are used. Antihistamines will help relieve swelling of the nasal passages and adjacent sinuses, thereby making it easier for a person to breathe through the nose. Vasoconstrictor medications will prevent the secretion and accumulation of mucus in the sinuses.

To treat polypous pansinusitis, they resort to surgery, with the help of which polyps in the nasal passages and sinuses are either cauterized or completely removed. Surgical intervention is also used in case of severe stagnation of pus in acute purulent pansinusitis.

Treatment of acute pansinusitis with folk remedies is also possible. This treatment consists of rinsing the nose with infusions of medicinal herbs (sage, calendula, St. John's wort, chamomile). Inhalations are carried out over herbal steam baths and nasal instillation of juice of beet, carrots, and Kalanchoe. A nebulizer is also used for inhalation at home. Inhalations are carried out using medicinal solutions. An integral part of treatment with folk remedies is warming up the sinuses . For heating, wax with ozokerite, salt and gin are used. However, if pansinusitis is caused by a strong accumulation of pus or the growth of polyps, then this procedure should be abandoned.

When self-treating pansinusitis at home, you should remember the risk of developing undesirable consequences and complications. Therefore, if the illness is very prolonged or home measures are ineffective, you should immediately seek qualified medical help.

Prevention of the development of acute pansinusitis

To prevent the development of acute pansinusitis, special attention should be paid to the immune system. Since in the chronic form of this disease, its exacerbation can provoke even minor colds. Severe hypothermia should also be . This can significantly reduce the body’s protective functions and provoke the development of the disease. At the first symptoms of the disease, apply timely and correct treatment and inform your doctor if it is ineffective.

Acute pansinusitis requires complex and serious treatment. Therefore, before starting self-treatment, you should know the cause of the disease and the principles of its treatment. If treatment at home is ineffective, you should seek qualified medical help. This will help prevent the development of unwanted and dangerous complications.

Causes of acute pansinusitis and its symptoms

The main reasons for the development of acute pansinusitis

The development of acute pansinusitis can be influenced by various reasons , however, the most important and fundamental is the weakening of the protective functions of the immune system. As already mentioned, pansinusitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and the growth of polyps in the paranasal sinuses. So, among the main reasons for the development of this disease are:

  1. Bacterial or viral infection of the upper respiratory tract - pansinusitis can develop as a complication due to prolonged or acute respiratory tract infection. The development of the disease can be caused by advanced sinusitis, acute rhinitis, acute bacterial tonsillitis and other diseases of the upper respiratory tract.
  2. Acute allergic diseases - acute allergic reactions that cause swelling of the tissues of the nasal passages and adjacent sinuses; if not treated in a timely manner or in a neglected state, they can cause stagnation of mucus or severe swelling of the sinuses.
  3. Injuries to the nose and deviated septum - Injuries to the nose, resulting in a violation of the structure of the nasal bones and septums, as well as a deviated nasal septum, prevent the normal discharge of mucus. Mucus stagnation can occur both with and without infection in the nasal cavity. Stagnant mucus can contribute to the development of a purulent-inflammatory process and cause the development of purulent pansinusitis.
  4. Getting dirty water into the nasal passages - when swimming in dirty water, there is a danger of pathogenic bacteria getting into the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses. Such bacteria contribute to the spread of infection and cause acute inflammatory processes.
  5. Acute infectious diseases of the oral cavity - deep dental caries or purulent-inflammatory processes in the jaws can contribute to the spread of infection into the paranasal sinuses. Therefore, it is so necessary to prevent tooth decay and visit the dentist in a timely manner.

Symptomatic picture of the development of acute pansinusitis

Symptoms during the development of acute pansinusitis are similar to the symptoms of ordinary pansinusitis and differ only in their severity and more severe course. A distinctive feature of an acute purulent-inflammatory process is also an increase in basal temperature to 38–39 degrees. So, among the main symptoms there are:

  1. Severe nasal congestion - occurs as a result of severe swelling of the mucous tissues, a large accumulation of pus in the paranasal sinuses and the spread of polyp growths into the paranasal sinuses.
  2. Severe headache - occurs as a result of oxygen starvation of the brain and the development of a strong inflammatory process. This pain is constantly present and does not go away after using painkillers.
  3. Purulent nasal discharge - nasal discharge has a yellowish-greenish tint, which indicates the presence of a purulent-inflammatory process. The discharge is thick and difficult to drain, complicating the treatment process and in some cases requiring surgical intervention.
  4. Severe fever - as a result of a strong inflammatory process, body temperature can rise to 39 degrees. Such an increase in temperature is possible with the development of acute pansinusitis of viral or bacterial origin.
  5. The appearance of nasal voice and hoarseness - appears as a result of severe nasal congestion and the spread of infection to the tissues of the throat.
  6. Ear congestion and pain can occur as a result of infection spreading to the ears. Incorrect and untimely treatment of acute pansinusitis can cause hearing diseases and short-term hearing loss as a result of the acute course of the disease.

If you have severe nasal congestion and persistent headaches, you should immediately consult a doctor . Since these first symptoms may indicate the beginning of the development of pansinusitis, which, if treated incorrectly or untimely, can acquire an acute form. Acute pansinusitis entails a number of undesirable consequences and complications.

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