How to treat a swollen throat during pregnancy

Causes of sore throat

With the onset of cold weather, many expectant mothers feel a sore and sore throat. This sign may be one of the first manifestations of colds. Sudden temperature changes, decreased daylight hours, lack of vitamins - all this leads to a significant decrease in the body's defenses. Women's immunity during pregnancy is already weakened, and any exposure during this period can lead to a sore throat.

The immediate cause of pain, scratching and sore throat is a viral or bacterial infection . This could be an acute respiratory infection (or the common cold), flu and other diseases. Diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles and rubella are much less common in pregnant women. Typically, such infections occur in childhood, and in adulthood, rarely do expectant mothers encounter similar diseases. People are vaccinated against diphtheria, measles and rubella, which virtually eliminates the possibility of contracting these infections.

The localization of the source of inflammation is also of great importance. Sore throat is a common symptom, and it can manifest itself in various diseases:

  • tonsillitis, or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils);
  • pharyngitis (damage to the mucous membrane of the pharynx);
  • laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx).

If assistance is not provided in a timely manner, any of these conditions can lead to the development of tracheitis, bronchitis and even pneumonia. Against the background of reduced immunity during pregnancy, the development of sepsis cannot be ruled out.

Causes of pain according to their nature

The causes of pain and their treatment depend on the type of disease and the nature of the manifestation of symptoms, including.


The cause may be an infection:

  • viral (pharyngitis);
  • bacterial (tonsillitis, tonsillitis).

A group of viral diseases is called ARVI for short. You can become infected by contact of mucous membranes or by airborne droplets.

A bacterial infection is a disharmony of bacteria living in the throat. In normal condition, they fight foreign bacteria and maintain a healthy throat. But with decreased immunity, constant stress, malnutrition, and lack of adequate sleep (which happens during pregnancy), bacteria begin to multiply and cause harm to the body. In the early stages, you can prevent the situation from getting worse by treating your throat.


The reason may be:

  • overstrain of the vocal cords;
  • dry throat (due to dry indoor air, smoking);
  • diseases of internal organs (ulcers);
  • allergy;
  • colds and nasopharyngeal disease.

A burning sensation in the throat is not always a consequence of a cold. If it doesn’t hurt to swallow, there’s no cough, no fever, no redness of the throat wall – the cause is anything but a cold.

See your doctor if you have abdominal pain. Allergies are characterized by redness of the eyes and runny nose. Take a closer look at secondary symptoms and diseases that have already existed.

Tingling, painful to swallow

The cause may be a cold and all its forms. The first thing you need to do right now is to start treating your throat. Rinsing and aerosols can eliminate pain and the cause of its occurrence.

Sore throat: main diseases

Bacterial and viral infections begin acutely with an increase in body temperature to 38-40 degrees. Chills, dizziness, headache, weakness and other signs of intoxication appear. A viral infection is characterized by muscle pain that spreads throughout the body. With a bacterial infection, a sore throat is often preceded by watery eyes and nasal congestion.

Acute tonsillitis

Sore throat makes itself felt by severe pain in the throat, which gets worse when swallowing. Unpleasant sensations occur even when trying to drink water. The tonsils enlarge and swell, and a grayish-yellow coating or film appears on their surface. With angina, the regional lymph nodes located under the lower jaw are always enlarged.

In most cases, sore throat is caused by streptococci - dangerous microorganisms that can lead to damage to internal organs. Much less often, staphylococci and other pathogens become the cause of acute tonsillitis. If a sore throat is not treated, it inevitably ends in problems with the functioning of the kidneys, heart and large joints.


Inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa is characterized by burning and sore throat. Painful sensations occur with severe inflammation on the second day of the disease. Pharyngitis is often accompanied by rhinitis (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes). Very often, when the pharynx is inflamed, a wet cough occurs.


Inflammation of the larynx is manifested not only by a sore throat, but also by a strong barking cough. The pain intensifies when swallowing and while talking. A characteristic sign of laryngitis is hoarseness. With swelling of the larynx, difficulty breathing and even attacks of suffocation may occur.

Quincke's edema during pregnancy

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Urticaria and Quincke's edema in pregnant women

What is urticaria

Urticaria is a disease of allergic etiology. Due to contact of the allergen with the body, a large amount of histamine is released into the blood. The vessels dilate, the permeability of the vascular walls increases. The main clinical manifestations affect the skin and mucous membranes. The skin manifestations are very similar to the skin reaction to a nettle burn, hence the name.

Symptoms of urticaria

    - Rashes suddenly appear on the skin in the form of bright pink or red spots of irregular shape. The rash is slightly compacted and raised above the skin. The spots may coalesce, forming large blisters. Sometimes the mucous membranes are involved in the process.

- Skin itching. Sometimes there is a rash that is not accompanied by itching or just skin itching without bright rashes.

- In mild to moderate forms of allergic urticaria, slight swelling of the lips and nasal congestion may occur.

Urticaria - spots on the skin

Urticaria rashes are painless. Acute allergic urticaria lasts from 1 day to 6 weeks. The spots disappear under the influence of treatment or spontaneously, without leaving behind pigmentation, peeling or other residual effects.

Why do pregnant women develop hives?

Allergic urticaria always appears after the body comes into contact with an allergen. Another thing is that during pregnancy, due to changes in a woman’s immunity and hormonal status, even familiar and well-known foods and substances can turn into allergens. And you shouldn’t try exotic or previously unused foods during pregnancy, as they can easily cause hives.

On the other hand, the increased level of cortisol in the blood of a woman expecting a child allows us to hope that most of the harmful substances that can cause allergic urticaria in pregnant women will be neutralized at the stage of entry into the body.

Quincke's edema

Quincke's edema is a more severe, pronounced allergic reaction that involves the deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous fat. The predominant symptom of this disease is extensive deep swelling. May be accompanied by urticaria.

Quincke's edema - swelling of the face

The main symptom is rapid swelling of the subcutaneous fat. Most often it is localized on the face and neck, and swelling can also appear on the palms and feet. The process involves not only the deep layers of the skin, but also the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx, larynx, and upper respiratory tract.

The swelling is very rapid, the skin at the site of the swelling is pale, sometimes painful, and there is severe itching. If immediate medical assistance is not provided, an attack of bronchial asthma or even asphyxia may occur.

What can cause urticaria or angioedema

Depending on the individual characteristics of a person, on his tendency to be allergic to a particular irritant, anything can become an allergen. But most often urticaria and angioedema are caused by the following allergens:

    - Insect bites. The most dangerous bite is from a bee, wasp or bumblebee.

— Medicines, especially penicillin antibiotics, local anesthetics, vaccines.

— Food products. Particularly noted were milk, honey, seafood, nuts, egg whites, cheeses, sea fish, spices and seasonings, and chocolate.

-Household and street dust, dust mites.

-Pollen from flowering plants.

-Pet fur, cockroaches.

- Household chemicals. Washing powders, detergents, conditioners, rinse aids, shampoos - the more concentrated the product, the more pronounced the smell and color, the greater the risk that there may be an allergy to contact with this product.

— Cosmetics and perfumes, creams, hair dyes.

— Chemical compounds used for processing agricultural products, clothing, paints and varnishes.

Hives can occur under the influence of cold, water, sunlight, and mechanical friction.

Treatment of urticaria and Quincke's edema

As with all major diseases, treatment of urticaria and angioedema is based on three principles:

    - stopping contact with the allergen;

During pregnancy, it is necessary to use medications with caution; among antihistamines, it is permissible to use Claritin, Zyrtec, L-cet during pregnancy. To reduce vascular permeability, calcium gluconate is used orally or in the form of intravenous injections. A single injection of Prednisolone or Dexamethasone has a good effect.

In case of Quincke's edema, immediate medical attention , since rapidly growing edema can lead to suffocation and asphyxia. Prednisolone, calcium gluconate and aminophylline are used as emergency medications. Everything is administered intravenously. The choice of these drugs is based on their speed and effectiveness, while the benefits to the mother significantly outweigh the possible risks to the fetus.

Diagnosis of throat diseases during pregnancy

In most cases, the doctor makes the diagnosis after a routine examination. For any pain in the throat, be sure to listen to the bronchi and lungs using a phonendoscope. Often, tonsillitis and pharyngitis provoke the development of bronchitis, pneumonia and other serious complications. X-ray examination of the lungs during pregnancy is not performed.

In the case of a sore throat, doctors are most afraid of the spread of streptococcal infection throughout the body. For tonsillitis, a smear from the mucous membrane of the tonsils is taken from all pregnant women. The resulting material is sown on nutrient media, and within a few days it is possible to accurately determine the causative agent of the disease. To obtain a quick result, rapid tests are used that are configured to detect hemolytic streptococcus.

What are the dangers of a sore throat during pregnancy?

A throat infection suffered by a woman in early pregnancy often causes miscarriage before 12 weeks. In addition, any infectious disease during this period can cause congenital malformations of the fetus. In the first trimester, the formation of the baby’s internal organs occurs, and exposure to viruses and bacteria during this period leads to the incorrect formation of all tissues.

After 16 weeks, viral and bacterial infections contribute to the development of placental insufficiency. During childbirth, severe intoxication can cause labor abnormalities, fetal hypoxia and bleeding.

Severe intoxication also has a very adverse effect on the course of pregnancy. When the body temperature is high, the uterus becomes toned. Pain appears in the lower abdomen, radiating to the sacrum and lower back. Constant hypertonicity of the uterus can lead to spontaneous abortion at any stage.

For the expectant mother, throat diseases also do not go away without consequences. A sharp decrease in immunity during pregnancy can lead to the spread of infection to the lower respiratory tract. Tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia - these are the most dangerous consequences of throat diseases. In severe cases, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes of the brain) and sepsis (blood poisoning) may develop.

Streptococcal tonsillitis deserves special attention .
A sore throat with this pathology is only one of the symptoms of a dangerous disease. If not treated in a timely manner, the infection spreads throughout the body. Penetrating into the kidneys, streptococci cause glomerulonephritis, accompanied by sharp jumps in blood pressure. When the heart is damaged, the valves are damaged, which inevitably leads to the formation of heart failure. And finally, when it gets into the joints, streptococcal infection causes rheumatism. All these diseases occur in pregnant women if antibiotic therapy is refused or if medications are selected incorrectly.

Treatment of sore throat in the first trimester of pregnancy

Up to 12 weeks, local therapy is preferred. The following methods are recommended to relieve a sore throat:

  • irrigating the throat with antiseptic solutions (“Hexoral”, “Tantum Verde”);
  • plates for resorption (“Laripront”, “Lizobakt”, “Strepsils”, “Faringosept”);
  • solutions for gargling (Miramistin, furatsilin solution);
  • gargling with herbal infusions (chamomile, calendula, sage).

Antiseptic sprays are usually prescribed 1-2 injections 2 times a day. You can gargle with herbal decoctions and special solutions much more often – up to 4 times a day. Tablets and lozenges should be taken every 4 hours. After using local antiseptics, do not eat or drink water for 30 minutes.

Drinking plenty of warm drinks will help relieve a sore throat. You can prepare fruit drinks and compotes or brew tea (black or green). Drinks should be warm, but not hot, and moderately sweet. You can add honey, jam or a slice of lemon to your tea.

Systemic antibacterial agents are practically not used in the first trimester. The only exception is streptococcal tonsillitis. For a sore throat caused by this pathology, antibiotics cannot be avoided. In the early stages of pregnancy, the following groups of drugs are allowed for use:

  • macrolides (Sumamed and others);
  • penicillins (“Amoxiclav”);
  • cephalosporins (Cefepime, Ceftriaxone).

The dosage is selected by the attending physician after a complete examination of the patient. All antibacterial agents used during pregnancy undergo clinical trials. Research reveals that antibiotics from these groups do not have an adverse effect on the development of the fetus in the womb. Pregnant women should not be afraid of taking antibiotics, because the expected benefits are much higher than the doubtful harm associated with their use.

To reduce body temperature in the first trimester, you can use paracetamol or ibuprofen. It is recommended to take these drugs in their pure form, and not as part of other cold remedies. "Theraflu", "Fervex", "Rinza" and other similar medications contain substances prohibited for use in pregnant women.

Treatment of sore throat in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy

After 14-16 weeks, the following drugs can be added to local treatment:

  • "Stopangin";
  • "Bioparox";
  • "Ingalipt";
  • "Kameton."

These drugs have a wide spectrum of action, which allows them to cope with many bacterial infections. To increase the effectiveness of sprays, before applying them, you can gargle with a decoction of chamomile or sage. Sprays should be used 2 times a day until the symptoms of the disease completely disappear.

In the second trimester of pregnancy, in case of severe disease, antibacterial drugs are prescribed. This is the only way to avoid the development of bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory complications. For expectant mothers, penicillin antibiotics, the latest generation cephalosporins, and macrolides are used. The duration of therapy is from 5 to 10 days. For mild pharyngitis, antibiotics are not used.

In the third trimester of pregnancy, expectant mothers should be especially careful with antipyretic drugs . The use of paracetamol and ibuprofen after 24 weeks can cause increased uterine tone and premature birth. In late pregnancy, anti-inflammatory drugs should be taken only at temperatures above 38 degrees. If a fever lasts more than three days, you should consult a doctor.

When treating a throat at any stage of pregnancy, you should not steam your feet or take hot baths. These popular folk methods can cause uterine hypertonicity and miscarriage. To keep warm, it is better to use a woolen blanket, as well as warm tea with honey and lemon. At high temperatures, on the contrary, you should not wrap yourself up too much, so as not to cause another hot flash.

A sore throat during pregnancy is a reason to consult a doctor . You should not self-medicate during such a crucial period! Trust your health to a specialist, and let the doctor select effective and safe remedies for you to eliminate a sore throat.

Features of the treatment of respiratory infections in pregnant women

The main symptoms of an incipient cold during pregnancy in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester: sore throat, inflamed mucous membranes, fever, temperature, weakness and drowsiness.

In the case when a pregnant woman has a sore throat, you need to choose gentle treatment regimens prescribed by a specialist doctor.

Particularly carefully, when severe sore throat occurs during pregnancy, you should use antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) based on Ibuprofen and Paracetamol, which are often used to treat colds and runny nose in acute respiratory disease (ARI).

The reasons that cause a sore throat during pregnancy: hypothermia, non-compliance with the diet (cold foods and drinks), contact with sick people, the epidemiological situation around.

Features of the treatment of sore throat in pregnant women and respiratory infections: as little antibacterial and antipyretic drugs as possible, adherence to bed rest in a comfortable, calm environment in order to relax and not be exposed to unnecessary stressful experiences.

During pregnancy, the throat hurts due to the penetration of various infectious agents:

  • viral - acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI), which is transmitted by airborne droplets or household contact;
  • bacterial, after which complications and chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract are possible;
  • fungal (candidal laryngitis, Pneumocystis pneumonia).

Otorhinolaryngologists know how to treat such infections, when a pregnant woman has a sore throat. Even if you want to recover quickly and improve your well-being during pregnancy, you do not need to immediately take antibiotics, since viruses are not susceptible to such drugs. Most often, acute respiratory infections occur as a result of the proliferation of viral microbes, and the onset of a bacterial infection is possible if there has not been sufficient treatment, or if the immune system cannot cope with pathogens.

The following viral infections are diagnosed when the throat hurts severely during pregnancy: influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, adenovirus infection. Viral diseases manifest themselves very quickly, the incubation period lasts from 1 to 4 days. During this period, the virus multiplies in the body to such an extent that active resistance of the immune system appears.

The multiplication of viruses causes intoxication of the body, and a feverish state begins (chills, thirst, “heaviness” in the head). When a severe sore throat begins during pregnancy, a general deterioration in health is observed:

  • mucous membranes (eyelids, sinuses) turn red and swell;
  • a runny nose (rhinitis) begins with clear discharge;
  • profuse lacrimation;
  • the temperature rises sharply;
  • hurts and “breaks” in joints and muscles;
  • there is a general loss of strength.

If your throat really hurts, and pregnancy does not allow you to use certain types of medications, then use restorative, immunostimulating natural products and topical products so that the body can cope with the infection itself.

Usually, within a few days, when sore throat during pregnancy begins and treatment is prescribed in a timely manner, the viral infection recedes. But in some cases, it can turn into a bacterial form of acute respiratory infection, which occurs with the following symptoms:

  • purulent inflammation of the mucous membranes;
  • elevated temperature that lasts for a long time (5–7 days or longer);
  • an unpleasant odor and taste may be felt in the discharge from the nasopharynx;
  • When you have a runny nose, thick, thick mucus of a yellow or green hue is released.

Bacterial pathogens when a pregnant woman has a sore throat and treatment is required: meningococci, pneumococci, mycoplasmas, streptococci and others. Depending on the location of the bacterial colony, the following diseases appear:

  • laryngitis, scarlet fever, whooping cough - inflammation of the larynx, which hurts due to severe swelling and tension of the vocal cords;
  • tonsillitis (tonsillitis) - inflammation of the tonsils and lymphadenoid tissue, which makes swallowing very painful;
  • pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx and lymph nodes, which causes a lot of pain and “scratching” in the throat.

The most noticeable difference between a bacterial infection and a viral one is the longer and hidden incubation period, which lasts one to two weeks. Many bacterial microorganisms can remain in the respiratory tract for years without manifesting themselves. But at a certain moment they are activated: after a viral infection, during severe hypothermia, or after suffering stress.

When a fever begins, the temperature rises and a pregnant woman has a very sore throat, then the question of how to treat it is worrying. Treatment of bacterial infections when the throat hurts in the early stages of pregnancy, in the 2nd and 3rd trimester, includes the prescription of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. Permitted groups of drugs for women who have a sore throat during pregnancy in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester:

  • penicillins (Amoxiclav, Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Oxacillin);
  • cephalosporins (Cefalexin, Ceftriaxone, Spectracef);
  • macrolides (Clarithromycin, Erythromycin).

Fungal laryngitis and pharyngitis in cases where a sore throat occurs during pregnancy in the 1st trimester or later are diagnosed extremely rarely. Causes of the disease: long-term or non-systemic antibiotic therapy, chronic immunodeficiency, occupational diseases.


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