Colds and flu during pregnancy: how to treat

Is a cold dangerous during pregnancy in the 1st trimester, how to treat it

A cold in the 1st trimester of pregnancy is always a special worry for a woman for whom this child is very desirable. What should you do if you get sick? How to prevent negative influence on a child?

Pregnancy and colds: prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections and influenza

But first, why does a cold during pregnancy in the 1st trimester sometimes cause panic? And the whole point is that in the first weeks after conception there is a huge probability of spontaneous abortion. According to statistics, frozen pregnancies and miscarriages occur in every eighth case before 12 weeks. And this is when the exact reasons for this have not been identified. And if there are health problems, then even more often.

Whether a cold during pregnancy in the 1st trimester was dangerous in your particular case, it will not be possible to say right away. Even for those women who had acute respiratory viral infections in the first weeks and then had a termination of pregnancy, it cannot be said with 100% certainty that the disease is the issue. After all, embryos die in healthy women too. This is due to severe chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, as well as a lack of the hormone progesterone in the mother, the presence of tumors in the uterus, chronic infection, etc.

Theoretically, what is the danger of a cold in the first trimester of pregnancy - nothing if the embryo continues to develop. Because if severe damage occurs in the first weeks after conception, everything ends spontaneously and bleeding begins. If the doctor diagnoses the growth of the uterus, an ultrasound reveals an embryo with dimensions corresponding to its term and always with a heartbeat, you can relax. More precisely, it will be possible to predict the possible consequences of a cold during pregnancy in the 1st trimester already at the first screening. This is a study that includes an ultrasound examination and a biochemical blood test. And based on the results of this examination, a special program calculates the risk of chromosomal abnormalities. But even without this miscalculation, everything is often clear from ultrasound examination. With this study, the doctor can identify gross malformations of the fetus.

By the way, these malformations can be caused not only by severe (most often) viral diseases, but also by medications taken for colds during pregnancy in the first trimester. After all, many drugs have a toxic effect. You cannot use some antibiotics, which many traditionally use to speed up the healing process. That is why all women who are planning a child and are already sexually active without using contraception should consult a doctor before starting to take any medicine.

Many believe that treating colds in the 1st trimester of pregnancy with folk remedies is much safer and can be carried out without restrictions. But this is also not true. If in the case of drugs their effect is precisely known, described in the instructions, side effects and contraindications will not become news, then no one has carefully studied the herbs. Therefore, if you carry out such treatment for colds during pregnancy in the 1st trimester, then do not take them orally. For example, topical use of calendula decoction for gargling will definitely not cause any harm. Sage and chamomile are also often used for this purpose.

How and what else can you treat a cold in the first trimester? Therapy should be symptomatic. For example, if the temperature rises above 38.5 degrees, then it will be safe to take Paracetamol. When coughing, it is better to use warm drinks. And only in the case of a protracted course can you think about drug treatment with your doctor. Well, nasal sprays with saline or sea water will help with a runny nose.

What is the prevention of colds during pregnancy, what to do to avoid getting infected? Everything is elementary - do not communicate with people who cough, sneeze, or sniffle. Visit public places and clinics less. It is advisable not to travel by public transport. Or, as a last resort, wear a medical mask there. When you arrive home, wash your hands thoroughly with soap. Well, when outside the house, do not touch your face with your hands, since it is on a person’s hands that most germs settle.

There is another way to prevent colds in early pregnancy - by increasing immunity. But not with the help of any special drugs, but with proper nutrition, consumption of vegetables with bactericidal properties, for example, onions, garlic, ginger.

Of course, it is better to have a healthy pregnancy. But if it happens that you get sick, don’t be upset. This happens to almost all expectant mothers. But in most cases, babies do not suffer from mother’s colds.


When is the flu most dangerous?

The formation of the baby in the womb occurs in the first trimester. Any colds or respiratory diseases pose a threat to the life of both the baby and the mother. Often, the disease is the cause of spontaneous abortion, for this reason it is important to prevent influenza during early pregnancy.

We also recommend: Flu vaccination during pregnancy

In cases where the fetus was preserved and the woman was successfully cured of the flu, several studies still need to be done:

  • Ultrasound;
  • blood test for AFP, CPP;
  • on estriol.

The listed tests will reveal any pathological processes in the fetal body, which can be eliminated if measures are taken in time.

No less important is the question of what pregnant women can take to prevent influenza and treat the disease. In the first three months, medications should be selected in such a way that they do not harm the mother and fetus. And in the first 12 weeks, the doctor may prescribe treatment with antibiotics if they are of benefit to the pregnant woman and there is no significant risk to the fetus. Infection with the influenza virus in the second and third trimesters no longer poses a particular threat to the mother and child, but there is a risk that the disease can provoke intrauterine infection of the fetus, which can lead to a delay in its development and vulnerability to a certain number of diseases after birth. All this speaks to one important rule: as soon as symptoms of infection appear, consult a doctor immediately. There are concerns that the illness has affected the condition of the fetus - you can undergo an examination by a geneticist.

Flu is especially dangerous in the first trimester

How is a pregnant woman treated for ARVI and influenza?

The modern pharmaceutical industry offers an incredibly huge number of drugs, thanks to which you can get rid of respiratory diseases in a matter of days and without health complications. It is worth remembering that the problem occurs in certain seasons of the year - spring, autumn. Therefore, it makes sense to prepare for an epidemic in advance.

To avoid getting sick, pregnant women need to eat as many vitamins as possible

How to treat influenza and ARVI in pregnant women at home:

Walk outdoors more often, be active, get positive emotions. The room should be regularly ventilated and air humidifiers should be installed. Eat only healthy foods. Give preference to vegetables, fruits, juices, berries, nuts

The immune system directly depends on the state of the microflora in the intestines, so it is important to consume fermented milk products and cereals. Requires drinking plenty of fluids. A polluted body is vulnerable, the immune system has to redistribute its forces to diseased “points” - the liver, kidneys

In order for the protective forces to fulfill their main function, one should cleanse themselves by drinking clean water and eating foods with coarse fibers.

Flu and ARVI during pregnancy: drug treatment

The pharmacological industry produces a colossal number of drugs intended not only for the treatment, but also for the prevention of colds and flu.

It is a big mistake to treat a disease with antibiotics. Thus, you can not only not help, but rather harm the body.

Does the flu affect conceiving a child?

Fears that conceiving a child with the flu can have serious consequences are completely justified. According to statistics, at least 70% of diseases end in a negative outcome.

The condition of the expectant mother’s body before conception is of great importance.

If you are prone to respiratory diseases, colds, or low immunity, it makes sense to take care of your health, strengthen your internal strength, without neglecting immunization

Planning a pregnancy is a serious step and very responsible work on your body. If both future parents are absolutely healthy and have a strong immune system, you can start conceiving a baby without fear. Persons who are often exposed to infectious and respiratory diseases should be careful; guarantees for the successful resolution of pregnancy and good health of the child may be minimal. It is worth considering that the body of the expectant mother begins to work “for two”. The functions of the internal organs are completely restructured due to the presence of a foreign embryo in the womb, the protective forces are reduced in order to prevent the fetus from being rejected and to allow it to develop calmly.

Threats to the embryo during the disease

The main symptom of influenza is intoxication of the body. The virus, penetrating the body through the mucous membrane, multiplies, creating colonies. The infection enters the bloodstream, and poisons the body with poisons from the decay of healthy cells and the virus. Dangers that the flu poses: frozen pregnancy, pathologies in the development of the child, defects of the cardiovascular system.

Pregnancy and colds: prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections and influenza

The need for immediate treatment is also due to the fact that the flu can harm the baby

It often happens that a woman is lost not because of her infection. She asks the question: “My husband has the flu and I’m pregnant.”

What to do?" It is important to take all precautions here and not to contact a loved one in order to avoid infection. The incubation period of reproduction is from 3 to 6 days, it is on these days that contact should be limited

Pregnancy: cough (dry or wet)

Treatment of cough during pregnancy

At the beginning of the disease, when the cough is dry, drink and breathe over the steam of infusions and decoctions of chamomile, plantain, sage, trifoliate, and linden blossom. They soften the larynx and bronchi, soothe the irritated mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and have an anti-inflammatory effect. After 2-3 days, after the cough becomes wet and sputum begins to clear, switch to herbal decoctions with a drying, astringent and expectorant effect - snakeweed, knotweed leaf lingonberries and eucalyptus, herbs wild rosemary, yarrow and string. For a lingering cough that does not “go away” by the end of the week. You should be examined by a doctor to rule out pneumonia. CONSEQUENCES

Naturally, all pregnant women are very worried about how the flu will affect the health of the child. I would like to immediately clarify that no doctor can say with 100% certainty whether the disease has affected the child’s development or not. With a greater degree of probability, we can only say that the flu poses the greatest danger in the early stages of pregnancy, up to 12 weeks

During these periods, the laying of the organs and tissues of the future baby occurs, so a favorable course of pregnancy at this time is especially important. Then the baby only grows and the flu can no longer affect the structure of the organs

In addition, in nature there is an “all or nothing” rule. According to this rule, if, after contracting the flu, something goes wrong in the development of pregnancy, then, most often, it is interrupted, no matter how sad it sounds... If pregnancy after the flu proceeds smoothly, all tests are normal, according to ultrasound with the baby and the placenta is fine, then most likely there is nothing to worry about, everything is fine with the baby. If the flu is particularly severe, with complications, then the possibility of infection of the child, albeit small, remains. In this case, you can do the so-called “triple test” - for AFP, hCG and estriol (you must take three hormones, since it is often unrealistic to assess the risk of pathologies using two or one). However, we must remember that the results of this test often turn out to be unreliable, because they depend on a lot of factors. Depending on the results of the “triple” test (sometimes retaken several times for greater reliability), you can either calm down or be examined further. Further examination includes the procedure of amniocentesis. During amniocentesis, a sample of amniotic fluid is taken and examined for any pathologies in the baby. Again, no one will give you a 100% guarantee of the absence or presence of deviations. And although the procedure is carried out very quickly, almost painlessly, under ultrasound control, in approximately 1-2% of cases there is a threat of miscarriage or premature birth. Therefore, before agreeing to such a study, you should think carefully about what you will actually do if the likelihood of deviations in the child’s development is still detected? If you are not ready to give birth to such a child, then the answer is obvious. And if, on the contrary, you are not going to have an abortion, then why risk a miscarriage?

How does a cold manifest itself in pregnant women?

A cold in the early stages of pregnancy can manifest itself as a constant feeling of fatigue, headaches, and malaise. The condition may worsen on the first day. You may notice the onset of symptoms such as: sore throat, runny nose, cough. Sometimes a cough may be the first symptom. If you have a sore throat and lack of appetite, you can talk about a viral infection. The temperature during a cold in pregnant women usually does not rise above 38 degrees, of course, unless there are serious complications. The first three days of a pregnant woman's illness cause the greatest discomfort. Then it becomes easier, the cold recedes, provided that the woman is treated correctly under the supervision of a doctor. Colds on the lips may occur during pregnancy. This is not bad, since the child can develop immunity to the herpes virus. Colds during pregnancy can be the result of hypothermia, as well as the action of bacteria and viruses. Despite the fact that the symptoms are similar, they need to be treated using different methods. Treatment for colds for pregnant women must begin with an accurate diagnosis. It is difficult to independently determine the onset of the development of bronchitis, sinusitis, and pneumonia.

Girl in a hat with a scarf

What is the danger

It is worth knowing why colds are dangerous during pregnancy, especially at the initial stage. If treatment is not started immediately, it can cause serious complications such as bronchitis and sinusitis. During them, the temperature rises greatly and intoxication develops. All this negatively affects the child. In addition, to eliminate these manifestations, it is necessary to take antibiotics, which can harm the development of the baby.

If a viral infection begins at a time when the expectant mother does not know about the presence of pregnancy, then she usually starts taking antiviral medications, lowers the temperature with pills, and puts a strong drop in her nose. All this reflects poorly on the child and can harm him in the future.

To prevent a cold during pregnancy in the 1st trimester from causing dangerous consequences in the subsequent period, you should not immediately grab medications. It is better to immediately start using folk remedies; of course, they do not have a strong effect, like many drugs, but they can still help overcome the disease without dangerous complications.

So why is a cold dangerous during pregnancy in the 1st trimester? It is worth considering its possible complications:

  • often a cold at the initial stage of pregnancy causes pathological development of the child’s organs;
  • sometimes high temperature leads to the development of hypoxia in the baby. In this condition, there is a lack of oxygen, which is required for respiration and growth;
  • In rare cases, infectious diseases cause premature termination of pregnancy.

Rubella is considered a particularly dangerous disease during pregnancy.

If the expectant mother did not have it as a child, then before planning a pregnancy she should exercise maximum caution, and she should not come into contact with infected people.

At the initial stage, rubella is similar to a common cold. During it, a runny nose appears, strong drops, this continues until a rash appears. It is worth remembering that the virus of this pathological process has a destructive effect on the embryo, causing serious disturbances in the formation of organs.

A cold in the first trimester of pregnancy can cause unpleasant consequences. But still, everything depends on timely treatment. If the disease is detected at the initial stage, then all unpleasant complications can be prevented.

Why are viral infections particularly dangerous for pregnant women?

Fertilization of the egg, implantation into the uterine wall and further development of the fetus are complex processes that require a total restructuring of the entire female body. If something goes wrong at any stage, unpredictable complications may develop.

The unborn child receives oxygen, vitamins and other nutrients from the mother's body. If the supply of these elements is insufficient due to the woman’s illness, fetal hypoxia develops, and the processes of formation of internal organs proceed with deviations from the norm.

A viral infection negatively affects not only the development of the child, but also the body of the pregnant woman herself. This manifests itself in:

  • immunosuppression,
  • disorders of the respiratory system.

In pregnant women, the chest expands, bronchial patency increases, and congestion occurs in the larynx and mucous membrane of the pulmonary alveoli. Because of these changes, pathogenic viruses penetrate the respiratory tract more easily, provoking the development of ARVI and influenza.

In order to avoid catching an infection during the epidemic season, it is necessary to take timely precautions to prevent colds during pregnancy and focus on strengthening the immune system.

ARVI disease in the first trimester

Pregnancy and colds: prevention and treatment of acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections and influenza

ARVI during pregnancy in the 1st trimester has a high risk of complications for the embryo. The lack of a formed placenta makes him vulnerable to viral and bacterial attack. Microorganisms penetrate directly into the embryo, disrupting its development. Acute respiratory viral infection can be caused by 300 pathogens, including:

  • adenovirus;
  • Ortomyxoviridae (influenza);
  • parainfluenza;
  • rhinovirus;
  • coronavirus;
  • respiratory syncytial virus.

The high susceptibility to the disease is explained by the methods of infection: through direct contact with a patient (airborne) and through the mouth (infection on the hands).

Viruses can cause:

  • acute bronchitis;
  • streptococcal pharyngitis;
  • acute respiratory infection.

The disease has the same symptoms for all types of pathogens:

  • sudden deterioration in health;
  • a sharp rise in temperature;
  • swelling of the nasopharynx and runny nose;
  • redness and sore throat.

But each pathogen also has its own characteristic features:

  • With the flu, the temperature suddenly rises to 38 degrees. and higher. Headache and muscle pain are accompanied by a severe runny nose, and then a dry cough. Against this background, a bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract becomes more active, accompanied by laryngitis and tracheitis. Pregnant women have hyperthermia over 39 degrees. may cause convulsions, subcutaneous hemorrhage.
  • The peculiarity of parainfluenza is a low temperature background with a severe runny nose and dry cough.
  • Adenovirus causes enlargement of the submandibular and cervical lymph nodes. The course of the disease is long, with declines and rises in temperature up to 39 degrees. within 10 days. During an exacerbation of fever, headache, muscle pain, photophobia, and cough with sputum are observed. Due to intoxication, there is no appetite.
  • Respiratory syncytial infection causes fever for 7 days, dry hacking cough, and general malaise.
  • Rhinovirus is the most common type of ARVI, its share in the autumn-winter period is from 30 to 50% of all cases. Main symptoms: temperature up to 37.5 degrees. with chills, severe runny nose with swelling of the mucous membranes of the nose, dryness and sore throat, catarrhal conjunctivitis. Stagnation of mucus in the nasopharynx due to swelling often leads to otitis media and sinusitis on the 4th-5th day of illness. Later complications are meningitis, pneumonia.
  • Symptoms of coronavirus coincide with symptoms of other types of acute respiratory viral infections. The illness lasts 5-7 days and ends with recovery.

Depending on the degree of damage to the body, mild, moderate and severe forms of ARVI are distinguished. Bacterial complications in the form of otitis media and sinusitis are possible with any form of viral disease.

Damage to the upper respiratory tract leads to a disruption in the supply of oxygen to the body of the pregnant woman to the unborn child. Both suffer from hypoxia at this stage of gestation.

Microorganisms and their toxins travel through the bloodstream to the rapidly growing embryo, which currently does not have a protective barrier. The likelihood of developmental defects and miscarriage most often occurs if the expectant mother gets sick with ARVI for a period of 1 to 3 months.


In order not to wonder what to do if a pregnant woman gets the flu, you need to pay special attention to preventive measures. The following simple rules can help reduce the risk of infection:

A man and a woman should prepare prematurely for conceiving a baby. You must first take a course of important vitamins and minerals. If the immune system is low, then use immunomodulatory medications

It is important to give up all bad habits and start leading a healthy lifestyle. In order not to wait for an answer to the question of how to treat the flu during pregnancy, it is also necessary to review the diet

Eat fresh vegetables and fruits, fish and lean meat, and cereals daily. It is worth giving up fatty, floury and sweet foods. As a result of this, the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract organs will return to normal, the symptoms of toxicosis will go away, and excess weight will not be gained. Pay attention to clothing, as it should be selected strictly taking into account the temperature and humidity outside. During strong winds and frost, do not walk without a hat. General hypothermia of the body creates unfavorable conditions for the spread of viral infection. If there are people around the pregnant woman who have become infected, then protect yourself from contact with them. But many people are wondering what to do if this is not possible. How to treat flu in pregnant women? In this case, purchase special masks at the pharmacy. They need to be changed every 2 hours. Also, constantly ventilate the room where the sick husband or child is. During epidemics, you should not visit public places or travel on public transport. This increases the risk of infection. Upon arrival home, be sure to wash your hands with soap.

Gynecologists often prescribe vitamins and immunomodulators. Take such medications strictly after a doctor's prescription. It is forbidden to draw up a treatment regimen on your own, as this may be dangerous for the baby.

What can pregnant women do to prevent flu?

How can pregnant women protect themselves from the flu? It is not always possible and necessary to use preventive medications; they can have a negative effect on the pregnant woman’s body and the condition of the fetus.

Preventive measures:

  • maintaining a healthy lifestyle, without bad habits;
  • frequent walks in the fresh air, especially before bedtime. This is necessary to harden the body, increase the level of oxygen in the blood, and activate regenerative processes;
  • organization of a proper diet, including vegetables, fruits, dairy products, meat, fish, legumes, seafood, berries, nuts;
  • wearing a gauze bandage if necessary in crowded places.


Flu vaccination is an excellent way to prevent severe illness, reduce the severity of its course, and reduce the likelihood of developing dangerous complications.

Benefits of vaccination:

  • prevention of severe influenza disease, which is fraught with disturbances in the normal intrauterine formation of the fetus;
  • the possibility of administering a vaccine in the presence of a number of chronic diseases, which increase the risk of contracting the virus (diabetes, asthma, kidney disease, heart disease, central nervous system);
  • the production of antibodies, which began after vaccination, organizes the protection of the baby for another six months after its birth.

Important! Experts advise women to get a flu vaccine in advance, a month before the expected conception. Or after the beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy.

Despite all the advantages, the flu vaccine also has a number of negative aspects:

  • the vaccine can penetrate the placental barrier, having an unpredictable effect on the baby’s health;
  • immunization cannot be considered an absolute protection against influenza infection;
  • vaccination does not guarantee against the development of complications that develop after administration of the drug, which can be dangerous for the pregnant woman and the fetus.

Important! The decision about vaccination and the choice of drug should be made in close cooperation with the gynecologist who is managing the pregnancy. With a qualified assessment of all risks.

Nonspecific prevention

How to avoid getting the flu during pregnancy? To reduce the risk of infection, a pregnant woman must adhere to the following rules:

  • avoid visiting places where there are many people;
  • it is necessary to limit the use of public transport;
  • if necessary to attend public events, use a gauze mask;
  • Pregnant women can take some antiviral drugs for prevention, for example, lubricate the nasal passages with Oxolin or Viferon before visiting public places;
  • dress warmly, avoiding hypothermia;
  • Be sure to wash your hands with soap after returning home;
  • do not touch your face with your hands outside the home;
  • irrigate the nasal mucosa with saline solution;
  • take vitamin supplements recommended during pregnancy;
  • eat well;
  • walk outside more often;
  • ventilate the apartment;
  • humidify the air in the rooms.

To avoid getting the flu, prevention is very important to reduce the risk of infection. For this purpose, some agents with pronounced antiviral activity can be used.


Grippferon is an antiviral drug that has a wide spectrum of effects against a number of pathogens. The convenience of the dosage form (nasal spray) allows it to be used to create local immunity.

The drug is used for preventive and therapeutic purposes; its use during pregnancy is not prohibited.


Viferon ointment is used to stimulate the body's production of its own interferons, which actively fight viruses. The drug is approved for use from the first trimester of pregnancy.


Ribomunil is used for preventive therapeutic purposes, as well as for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system caused by viral exposure.

The drug is a kind of vaccine against those microbes that provoke the development of respiratory pathologies. Its action includes an immunostimulating effect, as well as activation of the production of protective antibodies to pathogenic microorganisms, which provoke the development of the disease.

Antiviral drugs

Prevention of influenza and ARVI for pregnant women, including taking antiviral drugs, can only be used after consultation with your doctor. Self-medication during this delicate period is not allowed.

Important! Pregnant women cannot take synthetic immunomodulators, as well as antibacterial agents, at their own discretion. Taking medications must be safe for the baby, therefore they can only be prescribed by a doctor.

For women carrying a child, the use of the following drugs is permitted:

  • Aquamaris for rinsing the nasal cavity;
  • Infagel, Viferon, ointments that create local immunity;
  • Grippferon spray.

Prevention of flu and colds during pregnancy - traditional methods

When wondering how to protect yourself from the flu during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, when the use of most pharmaceuticals is prohibited, you should pay attention to the recommendations of traditional medicine.

  1. You can activate the functions that protect the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose by instilling aloe juice diluted with water or saline solution.
  2. Special attention should be paid to rinsing with decoctions of sage, St. John's wort, chamomile, and eucalyptus essential oil.
  3. Drinking plenty of fluids helps flush toxins and bacteria out of the body, as well as protect the body from viral infections.
  4. For constant addition to food, you need to use garlic and onions.
  5. Carry out inhalations with different decoctions and oils: tea tree oil, cedar, fir, pine, orange.
  6. Eat plenty of fresh vegetables and fruits.

Colds (acute respiratory infections, acute respiratory infections, influenza) during pregnancy

ARVI is an acute respiratory viral infection (acute catarrh of the upper respiratory tract) caused by a special virus that is released by a sick person when coughing, sneezing, or talking. The patient is contagious for 5-7 days from the onset of the disease; they get sick more often in the cold season. The incubation (hidden, preliminary period) lasts 3-5 days. The disease develops gradually, and the state of health in the first days is quite satisfactory, the temperature rises slightly, symptoms of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract appear - runny nose, cough, hoarseness. Intoxication is mild. The duration of the disease is about a week.

Influenza is a severe viral infection that affects men, women and children of all ages and nationalities. Influenza is associated with a high mortality rate, especially in young children and the elderly. Influenza epidemics occur every year, usually during the cold season, and affect up to 15% of the world's population. Repeated periodically, influenza and acute respiratory infections take away a total of about 1 year throughout our lives. A person spends these months in an inactive state, suffering from fever, general fatigue, headache, and poisoning of the body with poisonous viral proteins. Influenza and acute respiratory infections gradually undermine the cardiovascular system, reducing the average human life expectancy by several years. In severe cases of influenza, irreversible damage to the cardiovascular system, respiratory organs, and central nervous system often occurs, causing heart and vascular diseases, pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, and meningoencephalitis. The term “acute respiratory disease” (ARI) or “acute respiratory viral infection” (ARVI) covers a large number of diseases that are largely similar to each other. Their main similarity is that they are all caused by viruses that enter the body along with inhaled air through the mouth and nasopharynx, and also that they are all characterized by the same set of symptoms. The patient has a fever, sore throat, cough and headache for several days. The most common respiratory disease is acute rhinitis (runny nose); it is caused by a number of related viruses known as rhinoviruses. Upon recovery, all these symptoms disappear and leave no traces behind. However, it would be completely wrong to call all acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections influenza. Influenza is caused directly by the influenza virus (Myxovirus influenzae), which belongs to the orthomyxovirus family.

Influenza and ARVI rank first in frequency and number of cases in the world and account for 95% of all infectious diseases. In Russia, from 27.3 to 41.2 million cases of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections are registered annually.

There are several versions regarding the origin of the word “influenza” (an outdated name for influenza). According to one of them, it was born in Italy in the mid-15th century, after a serious epidemic, which was attributed to the influence of stars. According to other hypotheses, this word comes from the Latin “influere” (to invade) or from the Italian “influenza di freddo” (consequence of cooling). The Dutch word "griep", which is used colloquially like the English "flu", comes from the French "gripper" and is a collective term for a large number of respiratory diseases caused by more than 100 viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infections.

What is the difference between acute respiratory viral infections and acute respiratory infections? There is no diagnosis of a “cold”; usually the doctor diagnoses acute respiratory infections or acute respiratory viral infections. ARVI is an acute respiratory viral infection, ARI is an acute respiratory disease (it can be caused by both viruses and bacteria). Of all colds, influenza is the most dangerous. The diagnosis of “flu” is difficult to make (sometimes it is difficult to distinguish it from other viral infections). But remember that there is no flu in the warm season - the flu is characterized by seasonality. Signs of viral infections usually include fever, nasal congestion, clear, copious nasal discharge, and there may be a dry cough. Signs of bacterial infections: nasal discharge is green, thick, and green sputum may be coughed up. Signs of the flu usually begin very acutely, the temperature rises sharply, aching joints, muscle pain, and severe weakness appear. Cough and runny nose develop on day 2-3. Temperatures can rise to 40 and last for 3-7 days.

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