Neoplasm in the human nose

Basalioma is considered the most common skin cancer. This pathology can manifest itself in various parts of the epidermis. Most often it affects the skin of the face and other open areas of the dermis. One of the most common types of basal cell cancer is nasal skin basal cell carcinoma. Let's take a closer look at the main signs of oncology, its classification, and describe the main methods of how to treat basal cell carcinoma on the skin of the nose.

What is nasal skin basal cell carcinoma?

Basalioma of the skin of the nose is a lesion of the dermis by a tumor. This type of cancer is not considered rare. Doctors detect it in most of the world's population. Most often, oncology of the skin of the nose or other open area appears in Europeans. This is due to fair skin and light hair color. Light-skinned people are deprived of natural protection that protects their skin from the aggressive effects of the sun's rays.

The risk group is represented by the following categories of people:

  • elderly (50 years and older);
  • people suffering from psoriasis, scleroderma, allergic dermatitis, eczema, lupus erythematosus;
  • people with stitches, scars left after previous cosmetic rejuvenation procedures.

Early stage cancer is characterized by a favorable prognosis. Basalioma of the skin of the nose is easy to treat if it is started promptly and correctly. The pathology progresses quite slowly. In rare cases, tumor metastasis into adjacent tissues is observed.

Basalioma of the skin of the nose is characterized by injury to the upper, middle layer of the epidermis. In this zone, degeneration of basal cells and hair follicles is observed. Basal cell carcinoma develops under the influence of X-ray radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and exposure to carcinogens. This pathology is characterized by aggressive growth and active metastasis.

Reasons for the development of pathology

Doctors note that regardless of the provoking factors, the reason for the development of epidermal cancer is a disruption in the functioning of the immune system. Such conditions are provoked by various reasons.

Basalioma on the nose can occur under the influence of the following factors:

  • exposure to high doses of radiation;
  • thermal burns;
  • tanning, or rather excessive exposure to the open rays of the sun;
  • long-term exposure to arsenic and various petroleum products on the epidermis.

Classification of basalioma

Basal cell carcinoma on the nose has its own classification based on the affected area. Oncology can affect areas:

  • backrests;
  • lateral surface;
  • wings;
  • tip;
  • nasolabial folds.

The most dangerous are skin lesions on the back and tip of the nose due to the fact that the epidermis of these areas is very thin.

This significantly increases the likelihood of cancer penetrating into the cartilage tissue. such a lesion will greatly complicate the upcoming operation.

The appearance of basal cell carcinoma near the eye (on the side of the nose) is also dangerous. Such localization threatens the spread of cancer to the periorbital areas of the epidermis.

The following classification of basal cell skin lesions is generally accepted:

  1. Superficial basalioma of the skin. This form of the disease is represented by a small pink spot. Peeling may occur. The spot has clear contours and can be round or oval in shape. Small nodes form at the border of oncology. These bubbles merge and resemble a roller shape. The center of the affected area is dark. Basalioma of the skin of the nose grows quite slowly, but its size can be impressive.
  2. Tumor type (nodular). Initially, a node is visible on the dermis, it grows and becomes rounder. The color of this formation is pink. The nodule shines on top and scales appear on it. Ulcers may be observed in the center of the lesion. Taking into account the size of oncology, experts divide this type of pathology into the following forms (large-nodular, small-nodular).
  3. Pigmented appearance. The name is explained by the presence of a characteristic color, which can be purple, bluish, or brown. Doctors note its similarity to melanoma. The main difference is considered to be a denser consistency.
  4. Ulcerative appearance. This type of oncology is formed after ulceration of a nodule or as an independent form of cancer. Funnel-shaped lesions appear on the skin of the nose; around them there is a large infiltrate, characterized by unclear boundaries. The wound sometimes penetrates quite deeply, affecting the lower tissues. Experts consider this type of oncology to be rare.
  5. Sclerosis of cancer. It is diagnosed quite rarely. The pathology is represented by a lesion with a yellow-white color. There are no clear boundaries with healthy skin.
  6. Scar type. This form is more common. It is represented by a purple-colored focus limited from the healthy dermis. In the center of the tumor there is a serous covering with scales on it. It is similar to a psoriatic plaque.

Classification and symptoms of tumors

Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are classified as benign and malignant tumors.

Cysts in the nose are rarely paid attention to. Most often, such growths look like a bubble filled with a transparent or cloudy substance. The formation of a cyst occurs due to stretching of the walls of the sinuses and the epithelial layer of the nose. As the cyst grows, symptoms similar to the development of sinusitis appear - headaches, difficulty breathing, nasal congestion. The discharge from the nostrils is scanty. The symptoms of a benign tumor either intensify, especially during the period of a runny nose, or subside. Cystic growths are detected during an x-ray of the paranasal sinuses.

Another benign formation is fibroma. It is rare and appears as a small pedunculated tumor. The danger of a neoplasm is that it can grow into neighboring tissues and organs, for example, the orbit.

Red polyps - hemangiomas, angiomas - belong to vascular formations. Their symptoms are manifested by periodic nosebleeds.

As long as the bump in the nose does not grow and is localized only in a certain place, it does not pose a danger to the patient’s health. But when no measures are taken, both the face and neck may swell, which indicates the development of a malignant process.

But as a result of injuries, taking medications, or radiation, neoplasm cells can degenerate into malignant ones.

If symptoms associated with:

  • pain in the sinuses, upper jaws;
  • regular nosebleeds;
  • numbness of the cheeks and gums;
  • partial loss of vision;
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • formation of swelling on the face;
  • changes in speech.

Then there is a threat of cancer. Only a thorough examination of the patient can exclude or confirm the diagnosis.

Symptoms of nasal pathology

The following types of cancer most often appear on the nose:

  • nodal;
  • ulcerative.

Doctors explain this by the anatomical features of the skin.

Each form of nasal skin basal cell carcinoma has its own characteristic features. There are also differences depending on the neglect and stage of development of oncology. At the initial stage of the nodular form, a small plaque can be noticed. Then, on a single node, many dilated vessels appear. The size of such a formation can reach several centimeters. Ulcers appear on the surface of the nodes.

Ulcerative basalioma of the skin in the nose area is dangerous due to frequent bleeding and penetration into the deep layers of the dermis. It is quite easy to recognize it by the appearance of the wound.

What is basal cell carcinoma and why does it occur?

Basiloma on the nose is a malignant tumor

Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that affects the basal (upper) part of the epidermis. This neoplasm forms on the upper epidermal layer.

Most often, the pathology affects the skin that is exposed to the rays of the sun, namely the neck, lips, head, cheekbones. However, experts say that the nose, especially its wings and nasolabial folds, is the most common location for basal cell carcinomas.

The causes of the development of pathology are considered:

  • Weakened immune system.
  • Contacts with substances that have a carcinogenic effect.
  • Heredity.
  • Skin injury.
  • Frequent stressful situations.
  • Exposure to sunlight.
  • Electromagnetic radiation.
  • Abuse of alcoholic beverages.
  • Tobacco smoking.
  • Bad environmental situation.
  • Poisoning, intoxication of the body.
  • Radiation.
  • Uncontrolled use of medications.

The risk group for developing basal cell carcinoma includes elderly patients, as well as fair-skinned people and those who are exposed to sunlight for a long time.

Recently, tumors have been occurring in young people due to frequent visits to solariums and vacations in tropical climates.

Types and signs of neoplasm

At the initial stage, a small painless nodule of pink or red color appears

Experts identify several forms of basal cell carcinoma. These include:

  1. Nodal. It is characterized by the fact that in the first stages of its development, a pink shiny nodule forms on the skin of the nose, which begins to hurt. There is a crust on it, and dilated capillaries are visible along the edges. If the crust is removed, it will soon form again. Over time, the tumor begins to grow rapidly. Small other nodules are visible at the edges.
  2. Ulcerative. This tumor first looks like a pink spot with a pearlescent sheen, which develops into a regular ulcer, similar to a herpetic lesion. Soon it begins to increase in size. In the first stages, the disease is accompanied by itching and pain in the affected area. Further, the pain becomes more pronounced as the cartilage and bone tissue are affected.

Nasal liquorrhea - signs of pathology and treatment methods

There are such forms of basal cell carcinoma depending on the nature of their course:

  1. Aggressive (spreads very quickly).
  2. Sluggish (develop slowly).

The following types of basal cell carcinoma on the nose are identified:

  1. Flat (like a plaque with clear edges).
  2. Superficial (slight pink spot).

Depending on these types, specialists determine how dangerous the tumor is.

When and why is basal cell carcinoma dangerous?

The tumor is dangerous if it is localized on the side of the nose near the inner border of the eyes. In this case, the tumor can penetrate into the periorbital fibers.

Basalioma must be treated promptly, in the early stages, since the tumor can affect the nerves of the face, as a result of which facial expressions may be disrupted.

Deep lesions and tumors that are large are dangerous. Also, the development of severe complications is possible if the tumor on the nose was injured (there were scratches, an abrasion or a wound). In this case, basal cell carcinoma increases in size or spreads in depth to adjacent lower tissues.


The appearance of a formation in the nasal area may not initially excite the patient. But his growth requires a visit to the doctor. The specialist initially conducts an external examination; he examines the mucous membranes, dermis, and lymph nodes.

If there is a suspicion that nasal basal cell carcinoma is developing, a cytological and histological examination will be required. For diagnosis, laboratory assistants take fingerprint smears and scrapings from the surface of the tumor. A fingerprint smear allows you to determine the cellular composition.

How to suspect a nasal tumor in children

At the onset of the disease, there are no warning symptoms.

You should see a doctor if your baby has:

  • persistent difficulty breathing;
  • prolonged purulent runny nose;
  • frequent nosebleeds;
  • headache and fatigue in combination with other symptoms.

Important: do not try to remove the tumor yourself, even if you are sure that it is not a tumor!

Tavaluk Natalya, medical columnist

9, total, today

( 172 votes, average: 4.54 out of 5)

    Related Posts
  • Nasal rinses: a review of medications
  • Effective medicines for sore throat: review of remedies


The doctor selects treatment tactics individually. At the same time, it takes into account many factors (depth, size of oncology). The main goal of the treatment is to eliminate cancer and prevent relapse. Therapy for basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the nose can be carried out using the following methods:

  • surgical excision;
  • laser therapy;
  • cryodestruction;
  • photodynamic treatment.

Doctors pay a special role to nutrition during oncology treatment.

Operative methods

Surgery is considered one of the radical methods of treating nasal skin basal cell carcinoma. But this method of therapy also has its contraindications (intolerance to anesthetic drugs, infectious process, general condition).

Doctors consider surgery the most effective way to combat dermal cancer. Its disadvantage is the long rehabilitation period and scars after excision of the affected area of ​​the epidermis. Experts recommend excision of oncology within healthy skin. You need to retreat 1 - 2 cm from the edge of the formation. To prevent relapse, a histological examination of the dermis is carried out.

Laser, radiation therapy

Nasal basalioma, which cannot be treated surgically due to the presence of these contraindications, can be eliminated using modern methods. Laser therapy is considered very effective among them. It removes the tumor quickly, there are practically no scars left, and after it the patient should undergo a shorter rehabilitation period.

The operation is performed under sterile conditions; the surgeon does not touch the wound with his hands. Relapse after this therapeutic method is practically not observed. Laser treatment is most effective for small tumors.

There are contraindications to laser:

  • cardiovascular diseases;
  • skin pathologies;
  • infectious diseases.

Radiation therapy is also very effective. Patients tolerate it differently. Radiation therapy is used in elderly patients, as well as in cases where the tumor is large and has spread under the skin.

Various complications may develop after irradiation. This procedure is dangerous due to damage to the tissues surrounding the cancer. Among the consequences of radiation therapy, doctors distinguish:

  • redness;
  • thinning of the dermis, manifestation of the vascular network;
  • edema;
  • blisters with exudate, which, after rupture, threaten to become infected;
  • itching;
  • cataract;
  • radial java;
  • mucositis.

The most dangerous consequence of radiation therapy is the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma.

Photodynamic treatment

Nasal basalioma, which does not bother the patient for a long period, can be removed with special equipment. Thus, in 92% of cases the tumor can be removed using the photodynamic method . This method has one contraindication, which is increased sensitivity to light.

This method helps to remove formations of different sizes. Under the influence of photodynamics, the tumor and the vessels that feed it are destroyed. In this way, single and multiple basal cell carcinomas of the nasal skin can be removed. Injury to the healthy dermis during the procedure is minimal.


Experts consider cryodestruction to be a very effective method for eliminating basalioma of the skin of the nose. This procedure is not completely painless and is quite expensive. But its advantages are more significant, because the procedure is safe and highly effective.

The formation is removed under local anesthesia. The operation takes several minutes. After its completion, there is practically no rehabilitation period required. A few days are enough for recovery. This method of therapy is used when basal cell carcinoma is localized in the area of ​​the face and head. Its use does not leave scars on the skin. Cryodestruction is carried out using liquid nitrogen.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies can also be used in the treatment of nasal skin basal cell carcinoma. Only in this case, strict supervision by a specialist is necessary. The following popular remedies will help you cope with skin cancer:

  • herbal ointment (celandine + burdock);
  • decoction, freshly squeezed celandine juice;
  • carrot compress;
  • aloe (fresh leaves);
  • golden mustache (plant juice is used).

Nutrition is also important for skin basal cell carcinoma. The body must receive all the vitamins and minerals that help increase immunity and accelerate the healing of injured areas.

Diagnosis of benign tumors of the nasal cavity

Only an ENT doctor can make a diagnosis of a “benign tumor of the nasal cavity”. In doing so, he relies on data from a survey and examination of the patient.

Additional techniques can be used:

  • rhinoscopy,
  • biopsy,
  • consultation with an ophthalmologist,
  • pharyngoscopy,
  • diagnosis of smell impairment,
  • bacteriological smears from the throat, nasal cavity,
  • X-ray examination of the sinuses of the nose and skull,
  • CT scan.

Relapse of the disease

Nasal basalioma recurs in 25%. This is not as common as damage to the scalp and face (80% of cases). The danger lies in repeated radiation therapy, which negatively affects the structures of the center of the face.

Relapses most often occur in the first 2 years after therapy. Local signs include the appearance of a transparent bump on the dermis. And the general signs of relapse of basal cell carcinoma are:

  • pain syndrome;
  • weakness;
  • insomnia.

Treatment can be carried out using the same methods as the primary tumor.

( 1 rating, average 4 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]