Bronchodilators for bronchitis


Rating of remedies for pneumonia

The entire editorial staff of the portal reviewed several dozen pharmaceutical products demonstrating high demand. We were able to determine the top ranking nominees based on medical practice and recommendations of leading experts. We also assessed each applicant on a number of characteristics:

  • Group – antibiotics, NSAIDs, antivirals, antitussives, bronchodilators;
  • Active substance – synthetic, natural component, combination;
  • Release form - solid, liquid, powder, for oral administration, externally;
  • Indications – age, stage of disease development, presence of complications;
  • Treatment regimen - doses, frequency of administration, course duration, other nuances;
  • Tolerability – bioavailability of the composition, degree of digestibility, speed of action;
  • Restrictions - conditions when use is undesirable and strictly prohibited;
  • Risks – the likelihood of developing adverse reactions of the body, allergies;
  • Compatibility – which medications it combines with and which it conflicts with;
  • Special instructions – recommendations for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

A lot of work done by Vyborexperta.ru helped determine what medications are used to treat pneumonia in adults and children. The review included only those drugs that have an evidence-based clinical basis, positive experience in treating such a disease, and the maximum percentage of favorable reviews from doctors and patients.

The best remedies for bronchitis

The best remedies for bronchitis

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Antibiotics for pneumonia

Regardless of the severity of the disease, existing symptoms, complications, the doctor begins treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics. The source of inflammation is provoked by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and other pathogens. The most common pathogens are staphylococcus, streptococcus, pneumococcus, moraxella, and hemophilus influenzae. To eliminate them, broad-spectrum antibiotics are selected. There were several dozen rating candidates under consideration, but three nominees with a wide spectrum of action and proven effectiveness were included.

Amoxiclav

Topping the list of antibiotics that treat pneumonia is the combination drug Amoxiclav. It has been scientifically proven that the drug is effective in combating bacterial pathogens. There are two active ingredients here: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The first is aimed at destroying a wide range of microorganisms, the second acts as an assistant in this matter, preventing the pathogen from developing immunity. The main reason why we highlighted this product is its moderate toxicity compared to analogues. There are many indications for it - sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis, cholecystitis, pyelonephritis, and other infections, including pneumonia. There are several release forms to choose from - tablets, solution, suspension. There are no age restrictions; some cases allow admission from the first days of life.

Amoxiclav

Advantages

  • Large list of indications;
  • High bactericidal activity;
  • Moderate toxicity;
  • Good tolerance;
  • Acceptable for any age;
  • Digestibility does not depend on food intake.

Flaws

  • Load on the liver, kidneys;
  • Need for frequent use.

The dose is selected taking into account the general condition of the patient and the individual characteristics of the body. Usually this is 250-875 mg, divided into 2-3 doses per day.

The average course duration is 7-10 days. Doctor's supervision is important for children, pregnant women and breastfeeding women.

Sumamed

A universal antibiotic for the treatment of pneumonia of the latest generation from the group of macrolides with broad bacterial and antimicrobial activity. The active substance in the composition is azithromycin dihydrate, which is effective in the case of many infectious processes with pathogenic pathogens (usually mycoplasma, chlamydia). It shows good results in the treatment of genitourinary and skin diseases. Indications include bronchitis, pleurisy, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and damage to the gastrointestinal tract by Helicobacter. The suspension can be taken by children from 6 months of age; the rest are offered tablets, powders, capsules, and infusion bottles. Compared to penicillins, it demonstrates low toxicity. In addition, the active substance reaches the site of inflammation with high speed and has a prolonged effect.

Sumamed

Advantages

  • Fast efficiency;
  • Low toxicity;
  • Convenient dosage regimen;
  • Minimal contraindications;
  • A large number of release forms;
  • Efficiency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is higher.

Flaws

  • Price;
  • Risks of side effects.

One package contains 3 tablets. Rules of administration according to the instructions - once a day with a dosage of 500 mg. For a mild form of pneumonia, 3-5 days are enough; in case of complications, the course is extended. For children with bacterial pneumonia, the volume of the suspension is selected taking into account age and weight - a maximum of 125 mg.

Clarithromycin

Semi-synthetic from the group of macrolides with bacteriostatic, bactericidal, antibacterial activity. Unlike previous nominees, Clarithromycin is appropriate when quick help is needed due to its high bioavailability. The active substance with the same name clarithromycin has a broad spectrum of action against gram-positive/gram-negative anaerobes, streptococci, intracellular microorganisms, and mycobacterium tuberculosis. It demonstrates good results in the treatment of digestive diseases caused by Helicobacter Pylori. Another advantageous feature of this nominee is the rapid elimination of metabolites. Release forms: tablets, powder for suspension, lyophilisate, capsules.

Clarithromycin

Advantages

  • High bioavailability;
  • Rapid onset of effect;
  • Large list of indications;
  • Low toxicity;
  • Convenient release forms;
  • Rapid elimination from the body.

Flaws

  • Contraindicated for pregnant women and breastfeeding women;
  • Complex mechanism of action.

Take Clarithromycin twice a day, regardless of meals, at a dosage of 250-500 mg. Normally, the course is 7-10 days; for bilateral pneumonia and complications, it is extended to 2 weeks. The suspension is given to the child in an amount calculated based on weight.

What are bronchodilators

The process of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues of the body is very important for ensuring human life. Impaired breathing mechanisms are a life-threatening condition and require immediate help. One of the reasons for the deterioration of oxygen supply is bronchospasm - a pathological stricture of the branches of the windpipe. Bronchospasm can be caused by endogenous or exogenous factors, which must be eliminated by appropriate methods.

Bronchodilator drugs are intended to relieve symptoms of diseases that provoke contraction of the throat muscles (bronchial asthma, bronchitis). Bronchodilators achieve the desired therapeutic effect in several ways:

  • inducing a biological response of adrenergic receptors (specific agonists - salbutamol, clenbuterol, terbutaline, fenoterol or nonspecific - beta-agonists);
  • blocking the functions of cholinergic receptors;
  • decreased smooth muscle tone (myotropic antispasmodics, derivatives of xanthine, a purine base found in all cells of the body);
  • stimulation of the respiratory center (analeptics);
  • inhibition of calcium channels by alkaloids.

Medicines belonging to this pharmacological group are not intended to eliminate the cause of spasms, therefore types of drugs such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, antivirals and antimicrobials are not classified as bronchodilators. Bronchodilator medications have several forms of release - tablets, inhalers, syrups, injection solutions. The duration of the therapeutic effect depends on the constituent components of the drugs (varies from several hours to a day).

Anti-inflammatory drugs for pneumonia

If mild pneumonia requires the use of antibacterial drugs, then in the case of severe intoxication syndrome or febrile fever, the course is supplemented with anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). They fight symptoms - lower the temperature, eliminate swelling, relieve pain. The portal's editors considered about 10 of the most popular NSAIDs, but two nominees received the highest percentage of approval.

Ibuprofen

A popular remedy in the form of effervescent tablets or extended-release capsules for adults, suppositories or syrup for young patients. The synthetic component in the composition, a derivative of phenylpropionic acid, has strong antipyretic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. It suppresses the biosynthesis of mediators of inflammation and pain. The liquid form can be given to babies from 3 months. The list of indications includes pain of different nature, location, origin, feverish reactions to colds, infections. Can be taken during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. There is a negative effect on the digestive organs, so serious gastrointestinal pathologies are a direct contraindication.

Ibuprofen

Advantages

  • Highly effective against symptoms;
  • Elimination of pain of any strength, localization;
  • Forms for adults, children;
  • Allowed for pregnant women;
  • Favorable safety profile;
  • Inexpensive.

Flaws

  • Harmful effects on the stomach;
  • Does not eliminate the cause of the disease.

Regardless of the severity of the disease or the patient’s age, Ibuprofen can be taken for no longer than 5 days. If these are tablets, then 1 piece 3-4 times a day, preferably after meals. For children, the dose is calculated by weight - 5-10 mg per kilogram of weight, application after 4-6 hours.

Nurofen

A representative of the NSAID group, which is based on ibuprofen, a substance derived from phenylpropionic acid. It is used to suppress the inflammatory process, relieve pain, and relieve fever. Several forms of release are sold - solid or effervescent, capsules, suppositories, suspension, gel for external use. All of them are divided into 2 types - children from 3 months of age, adult Nurofen. The highest effectiveness was observed in the drug where the composition is supplemented with codeine with an antitussive effect. Indications are various colds with fever, pain of any nature, localization. Unlike its predecessor, this is a patented drug. In rare cases, the doctor allows pregnant women to take it in minimal doses in the first or second trimester.

Nurofen

Advantages

  • Performance;
  • Long-acting syrup;
  • Large list of indications;
  • Ease of use;
  • Forms of increased bioavailability;
  • European production.

Flaws

  • Price;
  • The syrup contains sugar.

The antipyretic and analgesic effect of liquid forms occurs faster than that of analogues. The maximum dose per day is 3-4 tablets of 200 mg, divided into several doses. The course of treatment should not exceed 3-5 days. A child is allowed a suspension of about 30 mg/kg per day.

How is pneumonia different from asthma?

The main difference between pneumonia and asthma is that pneumonia develops as a result of infection, while asthma is not associated with infection. In asthma, the bronchi become inflamed and the airways narrow. With the help of competent therapy and good medications, asthma can be treated, but it cannot be completely cured. Over time, a person learns to avoid factors that provoke attacks of bronchial asthma - the quality of life improves.

With pneumonia, the lung tissue becomes inflamed and the alveoli are affected, which are filled with exudate - an inflammatory fluid. The bronchi and bronchioles are not affected, so the airways remain healthy. Pneumonia can be completely cured. Despite the fact that both diseases have similar symptoms, different medications are prescribed and different therapeutic approaches are used to treat each.

Antiviral drugs for pneumonia

If the cause of such an illness is a viral infection transmitted by airborne droplets (for example, coronavirus), appropriate medications are selected. 90% of cases are pneumonia in children or the elderly due to a weak immune system. The doctor selects an antiviral drug, which needs to be taken for about 3 weeks. Of all the pharmaceutical products of this profile, VyborExpert selected the best based on reviews from doctors and their patients.

Ergoferon

A new drug on the pharmaceutical market with pronounced antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihistamine, immunomodulatory activity. Available in the form of lozenges. The composition belongs to homeopathy, contains a complex of immunoglobulins to human gamma interferon, histamine, CD4 cells. If used correctly, the level of substances that help the immune system to recognize and destroy the pathogen increases in time. Prescribed to combat bacterial and viral threats, preparing the body for the cold season. Serious illnesses require an integrated approach to therapy. Age limit – from 3 years. Pregnant and breastfeeding women need to consult a doctor.

Ergoferon

Advantages

  • Increased immunity;
  • Multifunctional homeopathy;
  • Pleasant taste;
  • Good tolerance;
  • Excellent compatibility;
  • No health risks.

Flaws

  • Price;
  • Efficacy has not been clinically proven.

Tablets against viral pneumonia are taken 1-2 tablets per day from several weeks to six months. For acute infection, a tablet is prescribed every half hour for 2 hours, then another 3 tablets until the end of the current day, and then 2-3 tablets for 5-10 days in a row.

The best antiviral agents

The best antiviral agents

Antitussives for pneumonia

Irritation of the respiratory parts of the lungs provokes a constant cough of a bacterial, viral, or fungal nature. In addition to basic medications, patients are prescribed those that eliminate this symptom. Treatment of cough with pneumonia is aimed at removing mucopurulent sputum, healing, softening tissue, preventing obstruction, and eliminating the inflammatory component. After studying medical recommendations, reviews, and the results of clinical studies, two leading medications were identified.

Doctor Mom

Herbal remedy to combat dry, unproductive cough. Available in several forms - syrup, lozenges, rubbing ointment. The first option is allowed from 3 years of age. Contains extracts of aloe vera, ginger, basil, turmeric, cubeba pepper, justice vascular, bibhitaki and nightshade. The lozenges consist of licorice, emblica, ginger, supplemented with menthol. Ointment - levo menthol, camphor, eucalyptus and nutmeg oil, turpentine oil, hydroxy derivative of cymene. All of them have complex therapeutic properties - they facilitate breathing, relieve inflammation, thin mucus for elimination, cleanse toxins, soften tissues, and relieve pain. Antiseptic properties are also noted. Suitable only for complex therapy. The safe composition allows use during pregnancy and lactation.

The best remedies for pneumonia

Advantages

  • Natural composition;
  • Convenient release forms;
  • Pleasant taste;
  • Allowed for children, pregnant and breastfeeding women;
  • Complex effect;
  • Inexpensive.

Flaws

  • Risks of allergic reactions;
  • Fast consumption.

Children are given 2.5 ml of syrup up to 3 times a day. The lozenges are dissolved at intervals of 2 hours. The ointment is rubbed on the wings of the nose, temporal region, back, sternum, you can use a bandage. The duration of the course depends on your health and doctor’s recommendations.

Bromhexine

A medicine with mucolytic, antiseptic, anesthetic, expectorant effects. Unlike the previous nominee, this product has a secretolytic property, due to which the lungs quickly remove mucus. Clinical studies confirm its effectiveness against all types of cough. The active component is bromhexine hydrochloride, which normalizes the balance of sputum components. There are two release forms - syrup, tablets. Liquid Bromhexine soothes irritated tissues, which is appropriate for dry coughs; solid Bromhexine penetrates faster, which is appropriate for wet coughs. The list of indications includes laryngitis, tracheitis, pulmonary emphysema, bronchial asthma, respiratory tract infections, etc. Separate doses of Bromhexine are available for children. The drug is contraindicated for pregnant women in the initial stages of pregnancy.

Bromhexine

Advantages

  • Normalization of sputum composition;
  • Acceleration of recovery;
  • Several forms for different age groups;
  • Safe composition;
  • Effective for any type of cough;
  • Inexpensive.

Flaws

  • Incompatibility with medications that block the cough reflex;
  • Only for complex therapy.

The child is given syrup 2.5-10 ml three times a day, depending on age. Adults – 8 mg of the active substance 3-4 times a day.

In severe cases or complications, the doctor may double the dosage. The maximum effect is observed on days 4-6 of regular treatment.

What are asthma and pneumonia?

Asthma and pneumonia are diseases that affect the respiratory system. Asthma is a chronic disease in which the bronchi become inflamed and their lumen narrows, making breathing difficult. A serious complication is status asthmaticus - a condition when an attack of asthma does not stop for a long time. With status asthmaticus, the bronchioles swell and oxygen deficiency in the blood increases. This condition is a medical emergency.

Symptoms of bronchial asthma are not constant: they can come and go. Their appearance depends on the presence of pathological factors, which include:

  • allergens: pollen, dust, pet hair, molds in poorly ventilated areas;
  • chemical vapors;
  • tobacco and industrial smoke;
  • contaminated air;
  • low humidity and temperature;
  • powerful emotions;
  • exercise stress;
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease;
  • taking aspirin.

Pneumonia is a disease of the respiratory system accompanied by inflammation of the lung tissue. As a rule, pneumonia is caused by infections: pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses or parasites. The tissue in one or both lungs may become inflamed. Pneumonia mainly affects the alveoli - small vesicles in which the exchange of gases between blood and air occurs. At the same time, pus and inflammatory fluid accumulate in the alveoli, making it difficult for the patient to breathe.

Bronchodilators for pneumonia

Another appropriate group of medications to relieve symptoms are bronchodilators. Their main task is to improve respiratory function by influencing the muscle tone of the bronchi and preventing the development of respiratory failure. Indications for use: narrowing of the bronchi, swelling, bronchospasms, accumulation of mucus. There is a wide variety of such medications on sale from different manufacturers. The best reviews and recommendations from doctors determined the nominees in the current ranking.

Fenoterol

A powerful bronchodilator beta-2-adrenergic agonist of selective type in composition. The active substance is fenoterol, its spectrum of action depends on the form of release. It relieves muscle spasm, stimulates clearance, has a tocolytic, relaxing effect, and eliminates signs of cardiovascular and respiratory failure. The main purpose is bronchial asthma, respiratory obstruction, emphysema. It comes in the form of an aerosol, tablets, infusion, injection solutions. Use during pregnancy is acceptable, except for the first three months; lactation is a contraindication. Age limit – from 6 years. Sold in a plastic bottle containing 100 tablets.

Fenoterol-Nativ

Advantages

  • Pronounced relaxing effect;
  • High activity;
  • Prolonged action;
  • Minimal frequency of side effects;
  • Economical consumption;
  • Allowed for pregnant women and children.

Flaws

  • Price;
  • Risks of overdose.

Children are prescribed treatment with inhalations of 0.1 mg, spraying the solution three times a day, the dosage for an adult is 0.6 mg per day. For the solid form, the maximum allowable amount is 8 pieces per day, divided into several doses. The manufacturer recommends drinking 2 liters of water daily.

Salbutamol

Another medication from the group of selective beta2-adrenergic agonists for the prevention and intensive relief of bronchospasms. Used to relieve symptoms. There are 3 forms to choose from - tablets, aerosol, syrup. The active component penetrates the body, relaxes muscles, and increases lung capacity. Indications from the instructions are the prevention or elimination of bronchospasms, relief of suffocation, prevention of complications of bronchitis, children's broncho-obstructive syndrome, obstetrics. Age limit – from 2 years. Salbutamol is strictly contraindicated for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Salbutamol

Advantages

  • Performance;
  • For adults, children;
  • Relief of asthma attacks;
  • Efficacy against asthma;
  • Ease of use;
  • Price.

Flaws

  • Higher risks of developing side effects;
  • Possibly addictive.

When using an aerosol, do 1-2 presses with a break of 4-6 hours, no more than 8 doses in one day. Syrup 1-2 mg/day for children 2-6 years old, 2 mg/day for 6-12 years old, 8 mg/day for older people. Tablets are taken 1 piece 3-4 times, capsules less often due to their prolonged action.

Types of bronchodilators

Adrenergic stimulants
These are “Salbutamol”, “Alupent”, “Ephedrine”, “Ac”, “Serevent” and others. They eliminate bronchospasm. They are universal bronchodilators. They are used mainly for the treatment of bronchial asthma. For chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, especially for shortness of breath, they are used, but less frequently.

M-anticholinergics

Used as maintenance therapy for patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis.
They improve lung function, reduce shortness of breath, and reduce the frequency and duration of exacerbations. These include: “Arutropid”, “Atrovent”, “Ipratropium bromide”, “Troventol”. How Simply Recommends
Why the medicine doesn’t work The key to successful treatment is, of course, following all the doctor’s recommendations and informing him of all significant changes during therapy. However, a specialist can talk as much as he wants about the regimen and duration of taking the drug, but most patients will still violate these rules. Read more

Xanthine derivatives

These include the drugs “Theophylline”, “Eufillin”. They relieve acute bronchospasm and are used for severe bronchial obstruction.

Combination drugs

They are a combination of two or more of the previous groups. Provide a rapid bronchodilator (bronchodilator) effect.

It will be better if the drug itself and the frequency of its use are selected not by a pharmacist, but by your attending physician after an in-person examination.

Plants are also used as bronchodilators. Among them are common harmala (burying ground), carnation, gelsemium, evergreen, tricolor violet, common ivy, black nightshade, broadleaf oberna (tar), common lilac, oregano, common, ephedra horsetail, belladonna.

How to choose a remedy for pneumonia

How to treat pneumonia, with what medications, depends on numerous factors. But you need to rely primarily on the doctor’s recommendations during a consultation or examination. Also, much depends on the established causes of the development of the disease, the nature of its occurrence, and the causative agent. Contraindications to different groups of medications significantly narrow the search for medications.

The doctor's consultation

Pneumonia is a serious disease, often a complication of viral, bacterial, fungal infections, and colds. There can be no talk of any self-medication here, since sepsis, pleurisy, meningitis, abscess, and even death are possible. Only after a laboratory test and a diagnosis by a doctor can a correct course of drug therapy be drawn up.

Nature of the disease

Which groups of medications and in what volume are needed depends on the type of pathogen, the general clinical picture and the patient’s well-being. For example:

  • mild form - only antibiotics can be taken;
  • intoxication syndrome, fever - use antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • cough, difficulty breathing, suffocation – mucolytics, bronchodilators, antitussive medications are needed;
  • pneumonia was caused by an acute respiratory viral infection - antiviral drugs are selected;
  • catarrhal phenomena have been identified - the use of antiseptics is required;
  • pleural damage with acute pain syndrome - anesthetics are prescribed.

The addition of additional medications to the list of prescriptions depends on what other clinical symptoms are identified by specialists.

Contraindications

Only an experienced doctor knows how to select medications for a patient, taking into account his age, health status, and individual characteristics of the body. For this purpose, contraindications are studied, for example:

  • tendency to allergies - exclude herbal compositions;
  • pathologies of the digestive system - avoid potent toxic medications with aggressive effects;
  • problems with the heart, kidneys, liver - a frequent contraindication to antibiotics and other powerful drugs; some are additionally prescribed supporting agents (hepatoprotectors, supporting microflora, enzymes);
  • problems with the hematopoietic system - with such a problem, NSAIDs are inappropriate;
  • childhood, pregnancy, lactation are special conditions that require the use of low-toxic, natural compounds.

Before buying this or that product, it is important to read the instructions and the restrictions on use.

Causes and provoking factors

In most cases, pneumonia develops as a result of the negative influence of pneumococci; in some cases, mycoplasma and viruses are the culprits of the inflammatory process.

In adults, risk factors for developing the disease are:

Photo 2

  • stress;
  • poor nutrition;
  • weak immunity;
  • frequent respiratory infections;
  • smoking;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • the presence of chronic diseases - heart pathologies, pyelonephritis;
  • HIV;
  • autoimmune diseases.

In childhood, provoking factors are as follows:

  • chronic infections in the ENT organs;
  • overheating or cooling;
  • incorrect daily routine;
  • lack of physical education;
  • violation of the epidemiological regime in children's institutions.

Online test: do you know how to heal?

The pathogenesis of COPD has not been fully studied, however, scientists have identified provoking factors that can give impetus to the development of pathology:

  • smoking;
  • working in hazardous production or living in an environmentally unfavorable environment;
  • cold and damp climatic conditions;
  • infectious lesion of mixed origin;
  • long-term bronchitis;
  • pathologies of the pulmonary system;
  • hereditary predisposition.

Obstructive pneumonia develops slowly over a long period of time and is often preceded by inflammation in the bronchi. Factors leading to the development of the disease:

  • penetration of pathogenic microflora into the body is the most common cause;
  • viral infection;
  • fungal infection;
  • weakened functioning of the immune system, which is provoked by stress, operations, and so on;
  • parasites;
  • inhalation of dust or toxic substances;
  • passive or active smoking;
  • bronchitis, bronchial asthma;
  • genetic predisposition.

It is important to understand that the risk of developing pneumonia increases significantly .

The simultaneous occurrence of pneumonia along with COPD leads to a vicious circle, that is, one disease affects the other, therefore, the clinical picture of the pathology becomes more severe. Moreover, COPD itself, and pneumonia itself, are often the causes of the development of respiratory failure, and when they act together, the complication becomes much more serious and dangerous.

What is the best remedy for pneumonia?

It is actually impossible to name one nominee from the presented rating to recommend to buyers. Treatment of this disease requires an integrated approach. We conducted a comparative analysis of the pros and cons of each review position, the opinions of doctors, and reviews of their patients, and then summed up the following results:

  • Sumamed is a long-acting antibacterial remedy for pneumonia for children;
  • Clarithromycin is a safe antibiotic with rapid elimination from the body;
  • Nurofen is a quickly effective patented NSAID without age restrictions;
  • Ergoferon is a homeopathy that supports the immune system without side effects;
  • Doctor Mom is a natural cough remedy without age restrictions;
  • Bromhexine – the ability to cure coughs of any nature;
  • Salbutamol is an ambulance for severe attacks of suffocation.

The list of suitable medications for such a diagnosis is extensive, but a competent physician should always have the final say. A set of measures will never be limited to one medication; it will be quite difficult to choose a complex on your own. The expert rating showed the most current offers of the pharmaceutical market.

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